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Everything noted is my teachers

Everything noted is my teachers

Before you read this I beg you man I beg you! Get all these points right, my life depends on this I BEG YOUUUUUU!!!!

Furthermore, make this 1.15 In spacing in order to try get everything in. and if not every comment is fitted please use 1 more extra page, so 13 pages.

Thank you very man, and please try get this for me, im facing anxiety attacks this work means so much to me !

Everything noted is my teachers comments

You’ve still got many errors in the analysis section
You cannot have a mixed number of decimal places in your results tables
Again your calculations show you have more iron than is actually in the tablets
The cow blood tablet brand
Where do 27 mg come from
This is not 0.27 grams
It’s 0.027 grams
Check your results thoroughly
Your IA will have to be submitted through Turnitin, Is there lots in there that’s not your own words 

Play insure you reference all your work, you don’t want to be caught.

Teachers comment aswell:

Regarding your sources of error
You’ve removed talking about rinsing your glassware at the start with soap.
This is a huge source of error and you cannot ignore it.
With respect I cannot currently follow the maths in your calculations at all
One gram of iron in 250 mls?
Are you sure?
You also have not mentioned shaking up your solutions and hence invalidating your results
This Jones redactor solution
Is this possible in a school if mercury is involved
You used 1.5 M sulphuric acid so why mention the hazards of 3M
Why did you choose 3 types of tablets with the same amount of iron in them?
Was this because they were bought in Norway
How could this strategy have been avoided
If you mention genuine errors and explain them well – you get credit for them
Miss them out and have a report filled with errors only – doesn’t give us a lot to go on.
We need an honest report showing progress made and learning from your mistakes etc 

I cant see any uncertainties in this work as I suggested…

Look at this example below, look at how he explains things and how much he put for every section. He uses the criterion to the fullest of where he explains everything in detail from calculations to photos to experiment. I want the same I BEG YOUUUUU!

ANALYSIS OF THE EXACT AMOUNT OF FERROUS IRON AVAILABLE IN IRON SUPPLEMENT TABLETS.(can you make a better knowledge question, look at criterion on what the knowledge question needs)


This experiment was very interesting to me because I was always curious about determining the amount of ferrous iron in iron supplements after learning about standardization redox reactions using substances such as potassium permanganate or potassium. This was basically because iron is very important element in many organisms. I noticed that iron is a vital component of the haemoglobin, which is an erythrocyte conjugate protein that transports oxygen absorbed in the lungs through the alveoli to the various tissues of the organisms` body. In addition, it supplies the oxygen required by body muscles since it is a component of myoglobin. Other than facilitating the transport of oxygen in the body tissues and muscles, I also got to know that iron is very essential to other metabolic processes of the body such as the growth and development process, cellular functions, manufacture of various hormones, enzymes and connective tissues of the body.

The deficiency of this element in the body also triggered me to push for this experiment as it leads to various conditions of the body such as anemia, which is a condition where the deficiency of the iron results in less transfer of oxygen to the body tissues in organisms. I learnt that the condition causes fatigue since there is not enough oxygen in the body to be transported by the haemoglobin (Centers for disease control and prevention, 2011). This could lead to a serious case of immune deficiency because if the brain`s functionality suffers from deficient amounts of oxygen, it weakens the immune system and one becomes exposed to very many infections (Webmed, 2011).

I also got to know that all organisms regardless of their age and gender require iron on their bodies. Especially, women require more amounts of the iron as compared to the male gender because they lose huge pints of blood every month because of menstruation process (Heart and Stroke Foundation, 2015). For this reason, the women aged 19 to 50 are advised by the NHS (2015) to ingest about 14.5 mg of ferrous iron per day whereas men are advised to have about 8.0mg of ferrous iron per day. This ingestion is not necessarily through iron supplements but also through foods rich in iron such as green vegetables such as spinach, dry fruits, beans, fortified cereals and red meat such as the liver. These are the best sources of iron however, tablets may be ingested to boost the iron levels if one has been confirmed to have low iron amounts in their body system (National Institute of Health, 2015). Eating foods rich in the iron will therefore decrease the effects caused by the iron deficiency and one may start getting better.

For me, given the importance of the iron in the organisms` systems, I dived into the research of the amount of iron in the iron supplements taken by people with reduced iron amounts in their bodies and see if these amounts were sufficient to boost their iron amounts with time.

I live in Norway and the state has restrictions with its tablet policies and hence, the directed my choice to using three 100mg iron tablets since that is what was available in the pharmacy.


Reaction under Study.

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

Background of the Reaction. ( is this background information?)

According to Collin College (2010), reduction oxidation (Redox) reactions are the type of chemical reactions that involve electron transfers between the species present. Titrations on the other hand are done with solutions of known volume with solutions of unknown volumes and concentrations, to determine the concentrations of the unknown when the titration reactions react completely. The iron amounts in the tablets are determined by analysis using the redox titration reactions.

Ferrous iron can oxidize to ferric iron in presence of potassium permanganate solution in acidic conditions. The manganese (IV) oxide in the potassium permanganate can also be reduced to manganese (II) ions in the reaction process (Braemar College, 2015).

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ (The manganite ion in the manganese (IV) oxide accepts the electrons from the ferrous iron and is reduced to manganese (II) ions).

The potassium permanganate solution is a deep purple solution and hence, the reaction will not require an indicator to indicate the color change since the potassium permanganate solution will turn from the deep purple color to a pale pink color of manganese (II) ions after the reduction process and the oxidation of the ferrous iron to ferric iron has taken place in acidic conditions and this is the advantage of the potassium permanganate as compared to other titrants (Northern Virginia Community College, 2014). The pink color is often too pale that it can be confused for a colorless solution color. The point where the pale pink color immediately forms in the reaction is the end-point of the reaction and that titrant volume is the actual volume measurement required for calculations of the amount of iron present. The acid used in this reaction is useful in the provision of the hydrogen ions necessary to facilitate the reaction progress to the end-point (Winona State University, 2010). Without the acidic conditions the reaction will not occur.


To obtain the amount of iron in the iron supplements, the potassium permanganate is put in the burette and the sulphuric acid mixed with a volume of the tablet solution is put in the conical flask and titrated with the potassium permanganate (Boundless, 2014). The titration proceeds until a pale pink solution appears from the initial deep purple color of potassium permanganate. This titer volume that is obtained is recorded and is used in the calculations that determine the amount of iron. The titration is done at least three times for accurate readings. The titer average volume obtained is used. A stoichiometric equation of the redox reaction, the moles of the potassium permanganate and the potassium permanganate volume and the titer average volume of the iron tablets solution obtained, are used in calculating the concentration of the iron in the tablets. The results of the amounts of the ferrous iron present in the supplement tablets are then compared against each other are compared in a graph to determine which of the tablets had a high amount of the ferrous iron. The critical part of the experiment involves the titration part. The determination of the change of the color from the deep purple solution to the pale pink color is the critical point of the experiment because the titer volume obtained should be accurate to obtain correct amounts of the iron at the end of the experiment. Also, the amounts of tablets used to make the solution to be titrated is vital and any wrong mixing in this section would affect the titration by not turning the potassium permanganate color to pale pink color.


more on variables and independent variables and if there is any controlled variables state that

In this experiment, the concentration of the ferrous iron is dependent on the volume of the titer used. Therefore, the dependent variable is the concentration of the ferrous iron in the supplement tablets whereas the independent variable is the titer volume from the titration.

The reaction is done at room temperature and constant pressure and no catalysts are required for the experiment.


Apparatus Used.

Make these in a table or something they are taking too much space and the space can be used for other more valid information

0.005M Potassium Permanganate

Burette and Clamp

Conical Flask

5 250ml Beakers

Sulphuric Acid

Magnetic Stirrer

250ml Volumetric Flask

Distilled Water

Mortar and Pestle

Ferromax 65mg Tablets

Duroferon 100mg Tablets

Nifrex 100mg Tablets

Nycoplas Ferro-Retard 100mg Tablets

Hemofer (2 tablets) 27mg

Haemoglobin from a cow.

Photographs of the Experiment. Can you please return how what these photos show

Please give it a title like figure 1 figure 2 or something and refer to it when in discussion

I cant really see any discussion of experiment and results in full detail, I have provided you with the first ever file I sent you and it says where I went wrong in my experiment for example when I said I shaked the burrete bottle and the clusters of iron moved everywhere in the liquid. So I tried to use filter paper to titrate it and see if it hopefully works out (please look at that file for re assurance)

Photographs from the experiment showing progress and tablets used.

Experimental Procedure.

Preparation of the Iron Sample Solutions.

The beakers were rinsed with distilled water for them to be totally clean. The tablets of each of the supplements: 65mg of the Ferromax, 100mg of the Dureferon, 100mg of Nifrex, 100mg of Nycoplus Ferro-Retard and 27mg of the Hemefer were put in the beakers. Distilled water was thereafter added to each of the sample to dissolve each of the samples. The solids were stirred to aid in the dissolution. 8ml of the 3M sulphuric acid was thereafter added to provide the hydrogen ions that were required for the reduction of the potassium permanganate.

Titration Redox Reaction procedure of the Potassium Permanganate and the Iron Solution Formed.

The burette was cleaned and rinsed using distilled water. Afterwards, it was filled with the potassium permanganate solution to the 0 ml mark. Each of the samples were then titrated to their endpoints and the titer volumes were thereafter recorded. The mass of the iron in each of the samples were thereafter determined from the obtained titer volumes using the stoichiometric equation of the reaction that happened.

Risk Assessment.

Safety Considerations.

Potassium Permanganate

Weak concentrations of the potassium permanganate were used and regardless of the concentration, the reagent is not hazardous.

Sulphuric Acid.

Explaining too much here, take the safety considerations of out this and use it you don’t need to explain more (the space saved can be used for other information)

Look at example of how he done it short simple but also shows the importance of it

The concentration used is high and thus there is a risk for causing the irritation of the eyes and the skin. In addition, severe burns to the eyes, skin and body tissues are risks associated with the 3M sulphuric acid (Risk assessment services, 2008). Wearing safety googles and protective gloves and a laboratory coat, keeping the reagent in ventilated places and out of reach of children are some of the prevention measures taken to reduce the risk associated with the reagent.

In case of contact with the acid to the skin, the acid should be washed immediately with running water and thereafter seek medical advice. In case of ingestion of the acid, artificial respiration is applied, and medical help is sought immediately.

Direct contact of the acid with water should be avoided because the acid reacts with the water explosively producing fumes. Also, the acid should be washed down the sink with large amounts of water. In case of spillage, sand adsorbent can be used to dry it out and the adsorbent is thereafter disposed as contaminated waste. Proper handling of the acid reduces the risks associated with the sulphuric acid.

Iron Supplements

These reagents are not hazardous.

Distilled Water.

The water is not hazardous. However, it should not be used for drinking.

Environmental Concentrations.

Sulphuric acid reacts with most of the metals and hence would cause a depletion of important minerals of the lithosphere if not well disposed. Hence proper disposal of the sulphuric acid should be done (Risk assessment services, 2008).

Ethical Considerations.

There were no ethical considerations to be accounted for in this experiment.

Experimental Results and Calculations.

Final Volume in ml 84.0 82.0 78.0
Initial Volume in ml 0.0 0.0 0.0
Titer volume in ml 84.0 82.0 78.0

The results for the Hemofer 27mg tablets.

Mass before = 40.220g and after mass = 40.174g

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

The reacting mole ratio is 1:5

The titer average is (84.0 + 82.0 + 78.0)/ 3 = 81.33 ml.

1000 ml KMnO4 = 0.005moles

81.33 ml =?

81.33/1000 × 0.005 moles = 0.00040665moles

Moles of the iron that reacted are 0.00040665 × 5 = 0.00203325moles.

1mole Fe = 56g

0.00203325moles =?

0.00203325/1 × 56g

= 0.113862g Ferrous Iron.

This was greater than the amount of the iron written on the tablet by 0.086862g since

250ml = 0.27g

25ml = 25/250 × 1 = 0.027g.

Final Volume in ml 86.0 73.0 88.0
Initial Volume in ml 0.0 0.0 0.0
Titer Volume in ml 86.0 73.0 88.0

The results shown are for the Nifrex 100mg tablets. The mass before = 39.597g and the mass after = 39.494g.

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

The reacting mole ratio is 1:5

The titer average is (86.0 + 73.0 + 88.0)/ 3 = 82.33ml

1000 ml KMnO4 = 0.005moles

82.33 ml =?

81.33/1000 × 0.005 moles = 0.00041165moles

Moles of the iron that reacted are 0.00041165 × 5 = 0.00205825moles.

1mole Fe = 56g

0.00205825moles =?

0.00203325/1 × 56g

= 0.115262g Ferrous Iron.

This was greater than the amount of the iron written on the tablet by 0.015262g since

250ml = 1g

25ml = 25/250 × 1 = 0.10g.

Final volume in ml 24.0 23.0 46.2 22.8 45.5 23.5
Initial Volume in ml 0.0 0.0 23.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Titer Volume in ml

24.0 24.0 23.2 22.8 22.7 23.5

The results shown represent those obtained from the Ferromax Tablets. The mass before = 37.505g and the mass after = 37.434g.

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

The reacting mole ratio is 1:5

The titer average is (24.0 + 23.0 + 23.2 + 22.8 +22.7 + 23.5)/ 5 = 27.84 ml.

1000 ml KMnO4 = 0.005moles

27.84 ml =?

27.84/1000 × 0.005 moles = 0.0001392moles

Moles of the iron that reacted are 0.0001392 × 5 = 0.000696moles.

1mole Fe = 56g

0.000696moles =?

0.000696/1 × 56g

= 0.038976g Ferrous Iron.

This was lesser than the amount of the iron written on the tablet by 0.026024g since

250ml = 0.65g

25ml = 25/250 × 1 = 0.065g.

Final Volume in ml 75.0 68.0 87.0
Initial Volume in ml 0.0 0.0 0.0
Titer Volume in ml 75.0 68.0 87.0

The results obtained are for the Nycoplus Tablets. The mass before = 38.454g and the mass after = 38. 405g

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

The reacting mole ratio is 1:5

The titer average is (75.0 + 68.0 + 87.0)/ 3 = 76.67 ml.

1000 ml KMnO4 = 0.005moles

76.67 ml =?

76.67/1000 × 0.005 moles = 0.000383335moles

Moles of the iron that reacted are 0.00038335 × 5 = 0.00191675moles.

1mole Fe = 56g

0.00191675moles =?

0.00191675/1 × 56g

= 0.107338g Ferrous Iron.

This was greater than the amount of the iron written on the tablet by 0.007338g since

250ml = 1g

25ml = 25/250 × 1 = 0.10g.

Final Volume in ml 64.0 68.0 74.0
Initial Volume in ml 0.0 0.0 0.0
Titer Volume in ml 64.0 68.0 74.0

The results obtained are for the Dureferon Tablets. The mass before = 38.561g and the mass after = 38. 521g.

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

The reacting mole ratio is 1:5

The titer average is (64.0 + 68.0 + 74.0)/ 3 = 68.67 ml.

1000 ml KMnO4 = 0.005moles

68.67 ml =?

68.67/1000 × 0.005 moles = 0.00034335moles

Moles of the iron that reacted are 0.00034335 × 5 = 0.00171675moles.

1mole Fe = 56g

0.00171675moles =?

0.0017167/1 × 56g

= 0.096138g Ferrous Iron.

This was lesser than the amount of the iron written on the tablet by 0.003862g since

250ml = 1g

25ml = 25/250 × 1 = 0.10g.

The figure above shows the amount of the iron content in the tablets as per the results.

Discussion and Conclusion.

The results from the experiment differ from the data written on the tablets for the amount of ferrous iron contained in each tablet. The results from the experiment indicated the presence of many errors present in the experiment. One of the main reasons why the values of the experiment are very inaccurate would be most especially since the titer volumes of the supplement tablets were wrong as the potassium permanganate end-point of a pale pink solution was not achieved for most of these tablets except for the ferromax tablets. Also, some contamination from the iron traces from the tablets used previously may have contributed to the higher amount of iron obtained. Without the correct titer volumes, the correct amount of the iron in the supplement tablets would therefore be inaccurate.

The main reason for the error in the experiment was that the ferrous iron that was to undergo oxidation was in small amounts in the iron solution obtained from the tablets. This could have been attributed by the fact that the ferrous iron is easily oxidized by the air in the atmosphere to ferric iron which is dark red in color and therefore, no reaction occurs between the ferric oxide and the potassium permanganate, and for this reason the pale pink manganese (II) ions will not be formed. Rather, the potassium permanganate solution retains its deep purple color. With this error, the titer volume can therefore not be obtained.

According to Collin College (2010), to avoid the premature oxidation of the ferrous iron to ferric iron, the use of the Jones redactor could be incorporated into the solution in order to convert any ferric iron back to the ferrous state in order for the redox reaction to proceed and an end point is obtained. The Jones redactor consists of a column filled zinc coated with mercury. Besides this, tin (II) chloride can also be used for the same purpose (Chemistry Lab Mouse A2, 2008).

2FeCl3 + SnCl2 SnCl4 + FeCl2

Another source of error would have been because of the potassium permanganate used in the experiment since the reagent is not usually stable and should be checked frequently by the lab technicians to normalize it. The permanganate used may also have not been normalized in a while and hence, making the detection of the end point difficult. Thus, the results got altered because of this.

In conclusion it should have your strengths and weaknesses look at example I put up at the top of the page

It should reflect on everything you have done, please state the most valid points (look at how the example was done)

In conclusion, the amounts of the iron in the supplement tablets were obtained. However, the amounts detected deviated from the actual amounts of iron indicated on the tablets and this was as a result of the experimental error where the ferrous iron oxidized to ferric iron and hence the redox titration reaction could not occur since ferric iron is stable and cannot reduce potassium permanganate. For this reason, the titer volumes obtained were wrong and so were the determined amounts of the iron from the supplement tablets. As discussed in future experiments, one should be careful with the iron solution and add the Jones redactor to convert any converted ferric iron back to the oxidizable ferrous iron.


A-level Chemistry web. (2015). Redox titration [Online] Available from: http://alevelchem.com/aqa_a_level_chemistry/unit3.6/inorg01.htm [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Boundless. (2014). Redox titrations [Online] Available from:  https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/aqueous-reactions-4/oxidation-reduction-reactions-48/redox-titrations-248-1533/> [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Centers for disease control and prevention. (2011). Iron and iron deficiency [Online] Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/iron.html [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Chemistry Lab Mouse A2. (2008). Practical: Determination of the Percentage of Iron in Iron Tablets[Online] Available from:  http://sustainability.sellafieldsites.com/resources/labmouse/chemistry_a2/3204.php> [Accessed 27 February 2019].

 Collin College. (2010). Determination of Iron in Dietary Supplement through Redox Titrations [Online] Available from:  http://www.collin.edu/chemistry/Handouts/1412/Redox Titration Experiment.pdf> [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Heart and Stroke Foundation. (2015). Nutrients for women [Online] Available from:  http://www.healthcheck.org/page/nutrients-women> [Accessed 27 February 2019].

National Institute of Health. (2015). Iron [Online] Available from:  http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/#h2 [Accessed 27 February 2019].

NHS. (2015). Vitamins and Minerals- Iron [Online] Available from:  http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Iron.aspx [Accessed 27 February 2019]. 

Northern Virginia Community College. (2014). Chemistry 111 Lab- Redox Titration [Online] Available from:  http://www.nvcc.edu/alexandria/stb/chm/111/111.08RedoxTitrationSpring2015.pdf [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Risk assessment services. (2008. Hazard Communication Sheet Sulphuric Acid 90-100%w/w [Online] Available from:  http://www.riskassessmentservices.co.uk/HazCom/Sulphuric Acid3.pdf> [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Webmed. (2011). What You Need to Know About Iron Supplements [Online] Available from:  http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/lifestyle-guide-11/iron-supplements?page=3 [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Winona State University. (2010). Determination of Iron by Redox Titration [Online] Available from:  http://course1.winona.edu/cmiertschin/213/inquiry_lab/exp10_fe_redox.pdf [Accessed 27 February 2019].