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Chapter 31: Societies at Crossroads The Ottoman Empire in Decline?Ottoman empire reached peak of military expansion in late seventeenth century?Defeated by Austrians, Russians, largely due to European advances in technology andstrategy?Elite Janissary corps involved in palace intrigue?Semi-independent local warlords used mercenaries, slave armies to support sultan inreturn for imperial favor?Massie corruption, misuses of tax revenuesTerritorial Losses?Russia took territories in Caucasus, central Asia?Nationalist uprisings drove Ottomans out of Balkans?Napoleon’s unsuccessful attack on Egypt spurred local revolt against Ottomans underMuhammad Ali (r. 1805–1848)?Nominally subordinate to Sultan, but threatened capture of Istanbul?British supported Ottomans only to avoid possible Russian expansionEconomic Difficulties?Imports of cheap manufactured goods put stress on local artisans; led to urban riots?Export-dependent Ottoman economy increasingly reliant on foreign loans?By 1882, Ottomans unable to pay interest on loans, forced to accept foreignadministrations of debts?In 1875, the nominal public debt was 200,000,000, with annual interest and amortizationpayments of 12, 000,000 mere than half the national revenue?Capitulations: agreements exempting Europeans from Ottoman law?Extraterritoriality gave tax-free status to foreign banks, businessesReforms and Reorganization?Attempts to reform taxation, increase agricultural output, and reduce corruption?Sultan Selim III (r. 1780-1807) remodeled army on European lines?Janissaries revolted, killed new troops,imprisoned sultan?Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808–1839) attempted same, had Janissaries massacred?Also reformed schools, taxation; built telegraph, postal serviceLegal and Educational Reform?Tanzimat (“reorganization”) era, 1839 – 1876?Pace of reform accelerated?New law codes drafted?Undermined power of traditional religious elite?Fierce opposition from religious conservatives, bureaucracy?Also opposition from radical Young Ottomans, who wanted constitutional government. Write a 1 page singled space summary



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