Welcome

Contact us on LIVE CHAT for the completely plagiarism free work, in the best possible price, done by experienced Experts!

BSBWOR502 | LEARNER GUIDE

BSBWOR502 | LEARNER GUIDE

LEAD AND MANAGE
TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
BSBWOR502 | LEARNER GUIDE

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

CONTENTS
Elements and Performance Criteria ………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Required Skills and Knowledge……………………………………………………………………………………… 5
What’s this unit about? ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Establish team performance plan ……………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Develop and facilitate team cohesion ………………………………………………………………………….. 29
Facilitate teamwork …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
Liaise with stakeholders …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

ELEMENTS AND PERFORMANCE
CRITERIA

1. Establish team
performance plan
1.1 Consult team members to establish a common understanding of
team purpose, roles, responsibilities and accountabilities in
accordance with organisational goals, plans and objectives
1.2 Develop performance plans to establish expected outcomes,
outputs, key performance indicators (KPIs) and goals for work team
1.3 Support team members in meeting expected performance
outcomes
2. Develop and facilitate
team cohesion
2.1 Develop strategies to ensure team members have input into
planning, decision making and operational aspects of work team
2.2 Develop policies and procedures to ensure team members take
responsibility for own work and assist others to undertake required
roles and responsibilities
2.3 Provide feedback to team members to encourage, value and
reward individual and team efforts and contributions
2.4 Develop processes to ensure that issues, concerns and problems
identified by team members are recognised and addressed
3. Facilitate teamwork 3.1 Encourage team members and individuals to participate in and to
take responsibility for team activities, including communication
processes
3.2 Support the team in identifying and resolving work performance
problems
3.3 Ensure own contribution to work team serves as a role model for
others and enhances the organisation’s image for all stakeholders
4. Liaise with stakeholders 4.1 Establish and maintain open communication processes with all
stakeholders
4.2 Communicate information from line manager/management to the
team
4.3 Communicate unresolved issues, concerns and problems raised by
team members and follow-up with line manager/management and
other relevant stakeholders
4.4 Evaluate and take necessary corrective action regarding
unresolved issues, concerns and problems raised by internal or
external stakeholders
BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

REQUIRED SKILLS AND
KNOWLEDGE
This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.
KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE
To complete the unit requirements safely and effectively, the individual must:
▪ Explain how group dynamics can support or hinder team performance
▪ Outline strategies that can support team cohesion, participation and performance
▪ Explain strategies for gaining consensus
▪ Explain issue resolution strategies
REQUIRED SKILLS
Evidence of the ability to:
▪ Use leadership techniques and strategies to facilitate team cohesion and work outcomes
including:
▪ Encouraging and fostering shared understanding of purpose, roles and responsibilities
▪ Identifying and resolving problems
▪ Providing feedback to encourage, value and reward others
▪ Modelling desired behaviour and practices
▪ Develop policies and procedures to ensure team members take responsibility for own work
and assist others to undertake required roles and responsibilities
▪ Establish processes to address issues and resolve performance issues
▪ Support team to meet expected performance outcomes including providing formal and
informal learning opportunities as needed
▪ Develop performance plans with key performance indicators (kpis), outputs and goals for
individuals or the team which incorporate input from stakeholders
▪ Communicate effectively with a range of stakeholders about team performance plans and
team performance
▪ Facilitate two-way flow of information between team and management relevant to team
performance
▪ Evaluate and take necessary corrective action regarding unresolved issues, concerns and
problems raised by internal or external stakeholders.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

WHAT’S THIS UNIT ABOUT?
This unit describes the skills and knowledge that you are required to have to be able to lead teams in
the workplace and also be able to actively engage with management of the organisation.
This unit applies to individuals working at managerial level who facilitate work teams and build
positive culture.
After you have completed this unit, participants will be able to:
▪ Establish team performance plan
▪ Develop and facilitate team cohesion
▪ Facilitate teamwork
▪ Liaise with stakeholders
WORK GROUPS/TEAMS
Efficient and effective work teams need to be led by Managers. The role that they play should be to
facilitate and lead in team planning, supervising team performance and developing team cohesion by
providing leadership for the team. Managers will also need to facilitate communication between all
levels of management and team members in order to achieve organisational goals.
The use of work groups/teams has been a major way of utilising the concepts of diversity within the
workplace. As a leader of an organisation you will have the option of using group process to achieve
organisational objectives. Like the issue of diversity, group processes can provide significant benefits
to an organisation. However, these are only likely to be achieved if the factors that influence group
processes are understood and effectively managed. Failure to manage group processes can result in a
costly waste of resources.
An important issue that arises from the issues of workplace diversity and group processes is that of
the interaction between the leader and many people with different personality characteristics.
Some consideration should lead you to realise the importance of this issue in group/team processes,
as well as your personal one-to-one interactions with your internal and external customers.
Also, this issue provides further reinforcement to the importance of being able to manage conflict in
the workplace.
Grouping particular personality types together within work units may lead to increased potential for
conflict. Alternatively, having too many of the same personality type together may lead to
complacency or a focus on social interaction rather than work performance. In this case you as the
leader may have to initiate conflict to manage these situations
Why Teams
Over the past two decades there has been a significant and increasing interest, paid by both public
and private sector organisations in Australia (and elsewhere), in workgroup/team processes. Most
major industries and many individual organisations have investigated and/or implemented ‘team’
processes in part or all of their workplaces. Many Australian businesses that have traditionally
operated in an authority based hierarchy, where individuals have set roles and relationships, are now
using a variety of team processes and structures that either replace or complement the more
traditional work practices.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

The present Australian business environment is characterised by increased complexity and
uncertainty resulting from many factors including:
▪ Increased domestic competition
▪ Increased economic and marketing globalisation
▪ Increased scarcity of resources
▪ Continuous technological change
▪ Uncertainty regarding the future of traditional markets and customers
▪ Less Government involvement in the running of the economy, resulting in a more “free
market” economy
▪ The corporatisation and privatisation of many public sector organisations
▪ Increased legislation regarding business activities
▪ Shifts in industrial relations processes
▪ An increasingly well-educated and demanding population
▪ Changes in attitudes to work and authority figures
▪ Continued high levels of unemployment, etc.
These factors, both individually and in combination, have placed increasing pressure on Australian
organisations’ ability to survive and succeed. In particular there has been a growing realisation that:
▪ Many decisions and situations are too complex for one individual to decide upon
▪ The pace and diversity of change is often too rapid for one individual to keep in contact with
▪ Stability is unlikely to be a major component of the business environment in the foreseeable
future
▪ Profitability and continuous productivity improvement are the major focus of all
organisations (both private and public)
▪ Organisational flexibility and innovation are essential for survival
▪ The workforce are less likely to accept decisions of managers, just because they are
managers, and expect greater involvement in decisions that impact on themselves
These realisations have forced organisational management to reassess their traditional approaches to
managing their businesses and seeking out and implementing additional and/or alternative
approaches that offer improved and continuous productivity improvement, and increase their
organisations ability to survive and prosper in their business environment.
Whilst many different elements of workplace management and practices have been considered, a
major focus has been on the potential benefits of using team processes.
A major influence in this direction has been the spectacular post World War II success of the
Japanese economy. The Japanese have maintained that a major reason for their success has been
their use of employee team processes, such as ‘quality circles’, that enable all the organisations’
employees to input into workplace practices and decisions.
Whilst Western-based organisations have traditionally relied upon the concepts of competition and
individual benefit, the Japanese model has relied upon cooperation and collective benefit.
What is a Team?
In simple terms, a work team can be defined as a group of two or more people who work together
and have direct input into the achievement of common work goals.
A work team can be defined as a group of 2 or more people who work together and have direct input
into the achievement of common work goals

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

5 people in a lift are a group
▪ Come and go randomly
▪ Have different goals
▪ 5 people in a broken lift are a team
▪ They have a common goal to get out of the lift!
LEADERSHIP AND TEAMS
Most of the previous discussion highlights the fact that in a team environment, a leader’s role will
move from the traditional “boss” to that of a facilitator. Teams need leaders, although in some team
situations informal leaders may arise within particular situations, for example where they are the
team member with the most skill, knowledge or experience in a given circumstance.
Effective team leadership is needed to keep the team together and operating as a team. Team leaders
are needed as a point of contact for people outside the team and organisation, and as a point of
reference for other team members. Effective team leaders achieve success through clarifying goals,
leading by example, increasing the self-confidence of other team members and helping them achieve
their full potential, encouraging participation and open and honest communication. The processes of
coaching and mentoring become important and challenge the traditional manager role based on
formal legitimate authority.
Such a change is, for many managers used to a dictatorial formal authority approach, a significant
barrier to overcome. This again highlights the importance of a contingency leadership approach and
the limitations of legitimate power.
Unless a team leader can create an environment that motivates team members to actively develop
and contribute their skills and knowledge, and to support the goals of the team and other team
members, an effective team is unlikely to exist. This point is critical because it enables us to make the
essential transition from concentrating on the establishment of work teams to the development and
maintenance of effective teamwork.
Political and Cultural Aspects
Because many work-teams represent potential power bases and means of increasing personal
influence within (and outside) the workplace, they are often used by individuals for this purpose.
Within this “political” context membership of particular teams may increase personal influence and
power, and the achieving of personal goals through:
▪ Exposure to important people, making them aware of your existence and gaining their ear
▪ The opportunity to learn from how successful people operate
▪ Improving networking and contacts
▪ Being able to have input into decisions that may benefit you
▪ Being able to influence decisions that may benefit a personal competitor/adversary
▪ The ability to “test” your abilities, etc. against potential career competitors
▪ The ability to extend your experience into areas you wouldn’t normally have access to
The political employee is likely to see particular teams as an important career stepping stone, seeking
to involve themselves in high profile, successful teams and avoid involvement in low profile teams
with a high probability of failure.
Organisational and social cultural factors can also have significant impact on workplace teams. An
organisation that has traditionally developed and fostered a culture of individual competition and

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

personal reward/benefit, and has employed persons suited to working in such an environment, may
have difficulty in developing a “team”; culture with these people.
Likewise, in many organisations the traditional employee-employer work relationships and roles
involve strict demarcation, often mistrust and even hostility. It requires a giant cultural attitude
change to move from this position to embracing the team concept.
Australian society and hence our workplaces continually reflect a wider population of cultural
diversity, and diversity based on age, gender, experience, etc. The successful integration of these
factors into work teams requires a good understanding of their impact (benefits and limitations) on
team processes, and how to manage them within the team environment.
The use of semi-autonomous work teams and team profit centres are approaches that are sometimes
used to force the necessary cultural/attitude change from an individual to a team mindset. Such a
change relies upon the leadership concept of Empowerment.
Characteristics of effective teams
For team success to be enabled it is important that both team members and leaders work well
together and contributing positively to the team.
Effective team leaders will:
▪ Promote team goals
▪ Facilitate team members to achieve goals
▪ Have open and honest communication
▪ Promote sharing of information
▪ Act as a motivator, mentor and coach
▪ Build trust
▪ Understand and help team members achieve personal and professional goals
▪ Establish protocols and develop team values
Effective team members will:
▪ Be respectful of other team members
▪ Be open to new ideas and learning from others
▪ Be trusting of team members
▪ Take responsibility
▪ Acknowledge one’s own strengths and weaknesses within the team
▪ Support team protocols and values
▪ Open listening
▪ Work with not against other team members for the achieve of the teams goals

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

ESTABLISH TEAM
PERFORMANCE PLAN
Teams are formed for a purpose, whether that be, a sporting team that gets together on the weekend
to play in a social competition or a work team that is formed to complete a project or task. If
members of a team do not have a shared and common understanding of the reason that the team
exists and the roles and responsibilities are not clear then each person will work independently in a
silo rather than working towards to common goal.
It is therefore vital that team members understand the, what and the why of a project and how that
links to the organisational objectives, so that everyone has input into the teams purpose and the
goals. By understanding the purpose of the team then each member will have a sense of value and
commitment to the team’s purpose and how their individual role will help achieve the overall team
objective or goal.
CONSULT TEAM MEMBERS TO ESTABLISH A
COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF TEAM
PURPOSE, ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND
ACCOUNTABILITIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH
ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS, PLANS AND
OBJECTIVES.
What is the difference between a team and a group?
When people work together as a team they have a greater output or productivity than the same
amount of people who are working independently. This can be said about groups of people as well
but the main difference between a group and a team is that within a team there will be a common or
agreed upon goals and roles that foster a degree of independence between each member.
Therefore members of a team have shared or agreed goal and have a formal plan or process to work
together.
What are the benefits that teams offer organisations?
▪ Utilise the potential of employees
▪ Offer new solutions
▪ Be responsive to the changing environment and be able to plan for problems
▪ Foster innovation and continuous improvement
▪ Create a sense of belonging in an organisation
▪ Capitalise on workplace diversity and encourage self-management
▪ Ability to take on large scale projects

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

This will then lead to:
▪ Higher quality
▪ Reduce operational costs and increase productivity
▪ Reduce new product development times
▪ Reduce waste reduction
Team purpose and vision
Every team needs a clear purpose and vision so that the team has direction toward achieving its goal.
Definition of a Vision Statement
A vision statement is a shared picture of performance excellence. It is a guiding image of success and
answers the questions:
▪ ‘what do we want to create?’
▪ ‘how do we want to be known?’
A vision statement is a realistic, credible, attractive future for the organisation. A vision statement is
about tomorrow and its primary purpose is to inspire.
A clear, common picture of the desired end provides a framework for decision making. The picture
focuses and empowers employees at all levels of the organisation.
For the team to be effective it must operate from a shared vision that has been formulated by the
team not imposed upon by management.
The vision needs to be expressed as clearly as possible so that everyone in the team understands and
feels comfortable with it.
It should be used in conjunction with the mission statement as this will help external stakeholders
understand the team’s purpose and objective.
A team will have a clear and agreed vision and mission, but it will also need to have a clear set of
goals and objectives that take the vision to a set of tangible activities and actions for the team to
follow. Team goals need to be SMART.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

What are SMART Goals?
S.M.A.R.T. is an acronym for the 5 steps of specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-based
goals. It’s a simple tool used by businesses to go beyond the realm of fuzzy goal-setting into an
actionable plan for results.
Specific: Great goals are well-defined and focused. ‘Obtain 2 new million dollar corporate clients in
the Sydney property insurance market’ is more meaningful to mobilize your team than ‘Get more
business’. Focus creates a powerful force: the moment you focus on a goal, it becomes a magnet,
pulling you and your resources toward it. The more focused your energies, the more power you
generate.
Measurable: A goal without a measurable outcome is like a sports competition without a scoreboard
or scorekeeper. Numbers are an essential part of business. Put concrete numbers in your objectives
to know if you’re on track. And remember, what gets measured is what gets done.
Attainable: Far too often, business units set goals beyond reach. Keep one foot firmly in reality.
Relevant: Achievable business goals are based on the current conditions and realities of the business
climate. You may desire to have your best year in business or increase revenue by 50%, but if a
recession is looming and 3 new competitors opened in your market, then your goals aren’t relevant
to the realities of the market.
Time-Based: Business goals and objectives just don’t get done when there’s no time frame tied to the
goal-setting process. Whether your business goal is to increase revenue by 20% or find 5 new clients,
choose a time frame to accomplish your goal.
Team/Group Roles

Role Function
A. Task-Focus Initiator Setting objectives and initiating actions
Expert Provides specialist advice
Evaluator Assesses processes; analyses problems
Implementer Implementation of details, timing and methods
Procedural technician Emphasise the importance of rules, procedures and precedents
Representative Spokesperson/liaison/negotiation for the group
B. Maintenance Focus Exemplar Exemplifies the groups ideals in personality attitudes and behaviour
Encourage Praises, supports, empathises
Confronter Brings conflict out into the open
Harmoniser Mediates, conciliates
Tension reliever Reduces formality, introduces humour
C. Disruptive Dominator Seeks to dominate discussion and to impose own views/objectives
Absentee Withdrawn, uninvolved
Aggressor Attacks others, ridicules, hostile, sarcastic
Smotherer Compulsively nice, stifles attention to conflict
Recognition-seeker Boastful, highlights own achievements
Confessor Reveals personal fears, failings, uses group as a therapy session
BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

For teams to survive and continue to be effective in their designated purpose, they need to focus on
both task-focused (achieving specific work objectives) and maintenance-focused (activities directed
to keeping the team functioning as a team) actions.
Research and workplace experience has shown teams that only concentrate on “tasks” soon begin to
breakdown. This problem is often overcome by the fact that individual team members will have
preferred roles that can be incorporated within teams, in order to address and achieve both task and
maintenance outcomes. Various group/team roles have been described by Dunphy (1981) and
summarised by Dunford (1996) as follows:
For a team to succeed it is important they give sufficient attention to the task and maintenance roles,
and be aware of and take action to eliminate disruptive roles.
As we have noted, teams are different from groups. For teams in the workplace to perform well and
to exceed expectations they need to achieve the goals that they have set out and also work out how
they can perform better. That means that there must be a team commitment to improving processes
and procedures, or to be able to make change if necessary.
Teams that fail are teams that lack direction and or purpose. Teams usually derive their goals or
purpose from senior management or from organisational goals. These are then converted into
operational plans by the team, who will then assign the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities to
each member.
When looking at goal setting, you can use many different methods, the 2 major tools used in
management are: Traditional Goal setting and Management by objectives.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Traditional goal/objective setting
The central core of traditional objective/goal setting is that goals and objectives are set by top
management and are then broken down into sub goals at each level of the organisation by its
managers. They are generally non-operational and at each level of the organisation each manager
needs to set a level of operational focus to the goals so that they are clear and workable to a team.
A danger with this method is that the main objective loses its clarity as it changes between the levels
of management and is subject to interpretation and biases.
http://www.slideshare.net/dmattison2005/chapter-7-foundations-of-planning-ppt07
Management by objectives, is not a new concept and was first outlined by Peter Drucker in 1954, in
“The Practice of Management”
The model aims to improve organisational performance by both management and employees clearly
defining and agreeing on objectives. By both management and employees having a say in goal setting
and action plans gains buy in and ensures that the team feels consulted and that there is alignment
across the organisation. Management by objectives relies on feedback on the progression towards
the goal. This can be done both formally and informally, but must involve all of the team.
http://www.12manage.com/images/picture_drucker_management_by_objectives.gif
Team Charters
Developing a Team Charter is a great way to energise and create synergy within a team. They define
the purpose of the team, how it will work and outlines the outcomes that are expected.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

A good analogy is a team charter is like a road map that the team creates at the beginning of the
journey, it makes sure that everyone knows the plan of the trip and the right direction to follow, so
that no one gets lost.
It is ideal that a team charter is drawn up when the team is formed, so that everyone is focused on
the purpose and goal from the start. It can be used as the “big picture” document that members can
refer to, it helps everyone keep on track.
There are many formats for a team charter, and it is important to select one that suits the needs of
the team and the project. Below are some elements that you may wish to include:
▪ Context
▪ Mission and Objectives
▪ Composition and roles
▪ Resources and support
▪ Scope
▪ Operations
▪ Time frames
▪ Outcomes
▪ Negotiation and agreement

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

By negotiating and setting a team charter at the beginning of the project, you are setting the ground
work for the team success. When everyone understands why the project needs to be carried out. The
objectives are clear, measures of success outlined and resources identified it sets the path for the
whole team.
See below for an example of a team charter.
http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/21545247.png
DEVELOP PERFORMANCE PLANS TO ESTABLISH
EXPECTED OUTCOMES, OUTPUTS, KPIS AND
GOALS FOR WORK TEAM
The most basic function of management is planning. As a Manager you know the basic steps in
planning and how and why you need to plan. There are many types of plans that organisations can
use, from strategic to operational plans. They can be used to help people in the organisation to
develop performance and to be able to monitor achievement of key results areas.
The concept of corporate DNA is a great tool to understand the link between the organisational DNA
and Team DNA. By understanding the link between the two, you can then set goals and objectives
that are linked to both the organisation and the team.
Understanding your organisations DNA will help you to design and operate a model that will directly
relate to the execution of good strategy and a clear path to follow for all levels of your organisation.
http://www.leader.co.za/leadership/images/graph_strategybusiness_apr2012_1.gif
Your organisational DNA is the combination of formal and informal traits that determine your
organisations identity and performance. Once you have determined your DNA, you will be able to
quickly analyse any breakdowns in strategy execution and remedy them.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Once you understand the DNA you are able to focus on the levers to maximise performance.
To read more on Organisational DNA and strategy see:
http://www.pwc.com/en_US/us/10minutes/assets/pwc-10minutes-organizational-dna.pdf
Performance planning is used by management to provide a systematic approach for individuals and
teams to attain the desired performance outcomes.
Managers need to create performance plans for your teams and for individual members. They need
to be clear and concise on the levels of leadership and management performance that are expected
of you. If new skills are required, then the plan should aid in the identification of any skills gaps.
Performance Planning can occur as: Initial performance plans or performance improvement plans.
Initial performance plans
These plans are used to identify desired performance levels and how they will be achieved. They
provide guidance and direction that can measure the progress towards the performance outcome.
There are many formats, but initial performance plan usually contain information such as:
▪ Specific goals for development
▪ Actions or steps to achieve these goals, and a time frame as to how long achievement will
take
▪ Performance measures
Performance Improvement plans
When a team or an individual is performing inadequately or is showing signs of poor performance, it
can have a negative influence on everyone in the organisation. As a Manager you may see signs of
this poor performance in the form of decrease in productivity, cohesiveness, absenteeism and a rise
in conflict and general dissatisfaction.
This need to be dealt with quickly before a small problem within a team or with an individual
becomes a major problem that infects the whole organisation.
Poor performance can be handled by:
▪ Collecting the information in regards to the performance issue
▪ Conduct a meeting with the team member(s) and have an open and honest discussion on the
facts; it is important that you discuss the problem and the root cause of the issue. It could be
as simple as the team has unrealistic KPIs and does not have sufficient resources.
▪ Develop a performance improvement plan together
▪ Follow up, gain feedback and monitor performance
The performance improvement plan should include:
▪ A clear and concise explanation of the performance area that needs improvement or
development
▪ Action that needs to be taken to address the issues and key persons that need to be involved
▪ Time frame for each action
▪ Guide as to how the actions and performance will be reviewed and evaluated
It is important that individual and team performance plans should be aligned with the organisations
objectives. This can be done by:
▪ Matching the performance plans with the operational plan
▪ Aligning team purpose to operational plan

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Team purpose to strategic plan
Plans might include goals like:
▪ Key performance indicators
▪ Improvement of competency levels
▪ Team goals
Example
Complete the following information:
▪ The Key Performance Indicator (KPI) that the performance issue falls under
▪ The specific skill to be improved or gained, knowledge to be acquired or behaviour to be
modified.
▪ The steps to be taken to bring about improvement.
▪ The people within the team or organisation who can assist in this process, or need to be
involved from a procedural point of view.
▪ The timeframe within which an improvement should be achieved.
▪ The process for evaluating and measuring the performance improvement.
https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/toolbox/leadership/toolbox/ip/ip_c20.html
When setting your Key performance indicators it is vital that they are set in conjunction with the
work team. They allow focus on vital aspects of performance and outcomes and can be used in a
number of ways including:
▪ Assessment of current performance levels of the organisation

KPISkill/Area
Requiring
Improvement
Action to be
Taken
Contacts for
Assistance
Timeframe for
Achievement
Evaluation of
Performance
Telemarketing Call
Centre Operators are
to make 50 outbound
calls per day, with an
average of five
bookings per day.
Selling B&B services to
corporate customers.
Develop sales
techniques through
team training sessions
with sales training
consultant.
Team training to be
followed up with
individual support, from
Team Leader, when
making sales calls.
Manager
Training Department
20/09/2001 Team Leader to
monitor at least 10
outbound sales calls
made by each
operator.
Results of call
monitoring to be
compared with
monitoring results
taken prior to training.
Minimum sales
(booking) achievement
of 10% of all outbound
sales calls made by
each operator.
BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ To underpin performance standards
▪ For use in information gathering that is consistent and reliable
▪ To help define purpose or direction within the organisation
▪ Criteria for evaluation
▪ Process improvement
▪ Planning at all levels
▪ Remuneration and performance review
▪ Increase productivity
When setting KPIs it is important that they use the SMARTT criteria
▪ Specific and concise
▪ Measurable targets that can drive performance
▪ Ambitious but achievable
▪ Related to the overall goals of the organisation
▪ Time framed
▪ Trackable or easily monitored
Cole: Management theory and Practice
http://image.slidesharecdn.com/hrkpimetrics-141113223619-conversion-gate01/95/hr-kpi-metrics-5-
638.jpg?cb=1415939812
Performance planning is developed at the beginning of a new role or performance cycle. It is the
process of
discussing and
agreeing on:
▪ Output
▪ Conduct and behaviour
▪ Knowledge and skills
It provides an on-going platform for continuous improvement, review and performance evaluation.
You can use a team-based approach to performance management by developing a performance plan
for a team rather than an individual. In this case, you will need to ensure that everyone knows what
is expected of them within that plan.
There are two stages at which a performance plan should be developed:

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Initially – upon employment or new job role. These plans include:
▪ KPI’s
▪ Goals for improvement
▪ Team building goals
Upon the need for improvement – when an employee lacks in performance and performance
improvement plan should be developed. Inadequate or poor performance can have a number of
negative impacts on individuals and teams. As a Team Leader, you may experience decreases in team
productivity and cohesiveness and an increase in conflict and dissatisfaction.
A Performance Improvement Plan should provide performance criteria on:
▪ The area of performance that requires improvement
▪ The action to be taken
▪ Anyone required to assist in the achievement of the set actions (i.e. mentor, buddy)
▪ The timeframe for achieving each action
▪ How performance improvement will be reviewed
▪ When performance improvement will be evaluated
Below is a generic performance plan template for you to use. Your organisation may have its own that
you should use if available.
Performance Agreement
▪ Employee:
▪ Role:
▪ Date:
▪ Review Dates:
▪ Date:
▪ Date:
▪ Date:

Task/ responsibilities Key outcomes Actual Performance
<List the tasks and areas of
responsibilities relevant to the position>
<Describe what doing the job well
looks like>
<Comments on performance as at
review dates>

▪ Employer Signature:
▪ Employee Signature:
Development Agreement
The following development needs have been discussed and agreed to be undertaken over the next
<number of> months.

Areas for development Actions
<These can be tasks, skills or behaviours <These are activities that will assist in development. They
BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016
that following discussions are agreed to
require development>
could be class training at TAFE, on-the-job training,
coaching from someone with the required skill >

• Employer Signature:
• Employee Signature

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

SUPPORT TEAM MEMBERS IN MEETING
EXPECTED PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES
It is vital that teams have a clear purpose for existence and understand their goals. Team members
need to be satisfied in order for the team to function and perform. Valuing team diversity and
knowing the signs of dysfunctional behaviour in a team is vital in maintain and creating a supportive
culture.
Teams are the backbone that drives most organisations. Whether it’s a functional team, a team of
managers or a project team, people get most done when they work together effectively. So when
members of a team don’t work well together, performance and productivity can suffer. That’s not
good for anyone. Hostility, conflicting goals, and unclear expectations within your team are symptoms
of an unhealthy team. To avoid these harmful effects, you need be proactive about improving team
performance. And even when a team is meeting its objectives, there’s often room for improvement.
Supporting your team through good team coaching can help to take your team to the next level. It’s a
worthwhile activity and is an essential tool for management and leadership.
Supporting team members
It is important to support team members to ensure that team goals are met. Supporting team
members involves:
▪ Advising on policies, procedures, instructions, etc.
▪ Assisting team members as required
▪ Solving problems
▪ Providing encouragement
▪ Providing feedback
▪ Undertaking extra tasks if necessary
As a manager your role will require you to lead, motivate, direct as well as support your team.
Different team members will respond to different strategies of management and levels of support. It
is your role to be able to support your team and be their mentor, coach, trainer and leader.
By understanding team roles you can learn how to support team members, this is an extract from
Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_83.htm
Belbin’s Team Roles
How Understanding Team Roles Can Improve Team Performance
When a team is performing at its best, you’ll usually find that each team member has clear
responsibilities. Just as importantly, you’ll see that every role needed to achieve the team’s goal is
being performed fully and well.
But often, despite clear roles and responsibilities, a team will fall short of its full potential.
How often does this happen in the teams you work with? Perhaps some team members don’t
complete what you expect them to do. Perhaps others are not quite flexible enough, so things “fall
between the cracks.” Maybe someone who is valued for their expert input fails to see the wider
picture, and so misses out tasks or steps that others would expect. Or perhaps one team member
becomes frustrated because he or she disagrees with the approach of another team member.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Dr Meredith Belbin studied team-work for many years, and he famously observed that people in
teams tend to assume different “team roles.” He defined a team role as “a tendency to behave,
contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way” and named nine such team roles that
underlie team success.
Creating More Balanced Teams
Belbin suggests that, by understanding your role within a particular team, you can develop your
strengths and manage your weaknesses as a team member, and so improve how you contribute to
the team.
Team leaders and team development practitioners often use the Belbin model to help create more
balanced teams.
Teams can become unbalanced if all team members have similar styles of behaviour or team roles. If
team members have similar weakness, the team as a whole may tend to have that weakness. If team
members have similar team-work strengths, they may tend to compete (rather than co-operate) for
the team tasks and responsibilities that best suit their natural styles.
Knowing this, you can use the model with your team to help ensure that necessary team roles are
covered, and that potential behavioural tensions or weaknesses among the team member are
addressed.
Tip:
Belbin’s “team roles” are based on observed behaviour and interpersonal styles.
Whilst Belbin suggests that people tend to adopt a particular team-role, bear in mind that your
behaviour and interpersonal style within a team is to some extent dependent on the situation: it
relates not only to your own natural working style, but also to your interrelationships with others,
and the work being done.
Be careful: you and the people you work with, may behave and interact quite differently in different
teams or when the membership or work of the team changes.
Also, be aware that there are other approaches in use, some of which complement this model, some
of which conflict with it. By all means use this approach as a guide, however do not put too much
reliance on it, and temper any conclusions with common sense.
Understanding Belbin’s Team Roles Model
Belbin identified nine team roles and he categorized those roles into three groups: Action Oriented,
People Oriented, and Thought Oriented. Each team role is associated with typical behavioural and
interpersonal strengths.
Belbin also defined characteristic weaknesses that tend to accompany each team role. He called the
characteristic weaknesses of team-roles the “allowable” weaknesses; as for any behavioural
weakness, these are areas to be aware of and potentially improve.
The nine team-roles are:
Action Oriented Roles
Shaper (SH)
Shapers are people who challenge the team to improve. They are dynamic and usually extroverted
people who enjoy stimulating others, questioning norms, and finding the best approaches for solving

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

problems. The Shaper is the one who shakes things up to make sure that all possibilities are
considered and that the team does not become complacent.
Shapers often see obstacles as exciting challenges and they tend to have the courage to push on
when others feel like quitting.
Their potential weaknesses may be that they’re argumentative, and that they may offend people’s
feelings.
Implementer (IMP)
Implementers are the people who get things done. They turn the team’s ideas and concepts into
practical actions and plans. They are typically conservative, disciplined people who work
systematically and efficiently and are very well organized. These are the people who you can count on
to get the job done.
On the downside, Implementers may be inflexible and can be somewhat resistant to change.
Completer-Finisher (CF)
Completer-Finishers are the people who see that projects are completed thoroughly. They ensure
there have been no errors or omissions and they pay attention to the smallest of details. They are
very concerned with deadlines and will push the team to make sure the job is completed on time.
They are described as perfectionists who are orderly, conscientious, and anxious.
However, a Completer-Finisher may worry unnecessarily, and may find it hard to delegate.
People Oriented Roles
Coordinator (CO)
Coordinators are the ones who take on the traditional team-leader role and have also been referred
to as the chairmen. They guide the team to what they perceive are the objectives. They are often
excellent listeners and they are naturally able to recognize the value that each team members brings
to the table. They are calm and good-natured and delegate tasks very effectively.
Their potential weaknesses are that they may delegate away too much personal responsibility, and
may tend to be manipulative.
Team Worker (TW)
Team Workers are the people who provide support and make sure that people within the team are
working together effectively. These people fill the role of negotiators within the team and they are
flexible, diplomatic, and perceptive. These tend to be popular people who are very capable in their
own right, but who prioritize team cohesion and helping people getting along.
Their weaknesses may be a tendency to be indecisive, and to maintain uncommitted positions during
discussions and decision-making.
Resource Investigator (RI)
Resource Investigators are innovative and curious. They explore available options, develop contacts,
and negotiate for resources on behalf of the team. They are enthusiastic team members, who
identify and work with external stakeholders to help the team accomplish its objective. They are
outgoing and are often extroverted, meaning that others are often receptive to them and their ideas.
On the downside, they may lose enthusiasm quickly, and are often overly optimistic.
Thought Oriented Roles

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Plant (PL)
The Plant is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches. They thrive on
praise but criticism is especially hard for them to deal with. Plants are often introverted and prefer to
work apart from the team. Because their ideas are so novel, they can be impractical at times. They
may also be poor communicators and can tend to ignore given parameters and constraints.
Monitor-Evaluator (ME)
Monitor-Evaluators are best at analysing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come
up with. These people are shrewd and objective and they carefully weigh the pros and cons of all the
options before coming to a decision.
Monitor-Evaluators are critical thinkers and very strategic in their approach. They are often perceived
as detached or unemotional. Sometimes they are poor motivators who react to events rather than
instigating them
Specialist (SP)
Specialists are people who have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done. They pride
themselves on their skills and abilities, and they work to maintain their professional status. Their job
within the team is to be an expert in the area, and they commit themselves fully to their field of
expertise.
This may limit their contribution, and lead to a preoccupation with technicalities at the expense of
the bigger picture.
Figure 1: Belbin’s Team Roles

Action Oriented RolesShaper Challenges the team to improve.
Implementer Puts ideas into action.
Completer Finisher Ensures thorough, timely completion.
People Oriented RolesCoordinator Acts as a chairperson.
Team Worker Encourages cooperation.
Resource Investigator Explores outside opportunities.
Thought Oriented RolesPlant Presents new ideas and approaches.
Monitor-Evaluator Analyzes the options.
Specialist Provides specialized skills.

Note:
To find out which team roles you naturally fulfill, or to profile your team, visit www.belbin.com.
How to Use the Tool
The Belbin Team Roles Model can be used in several ways: you can use it to think about team balance
before a project starts, you can use it to highlight and so manage interpersonal differences within an
existing team, and you can use it to develop yourself as a team player.
The tool below helps you analyse team membership, using the Belbin team roles as checks for
potential strengths and weakness within your team.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Use Belbin’s model to analyse your team, and as a guide as you develop your team’s strengths, and
manage its weaknesses:
▪ Over a period of time, observe the individual members of your team, and see how they
behave, contribute and behave within the team.
▪ Now list the members of the team, and for each person write down the key strengths and
characteristics you have observed. (You may also want to note down any observed
weaknesses).
▪ Compare each person’s listed strengths and weakness with the Belbin’s descriptions of teamroles, and note the role that most accurately describes that person.
▪ Once you have done this for each team member, consider the following questions:
▪ Which team roles are missing from your team? And from this, ask yourself which strengths
are likely to be missing from the team overall?
▪ Is there are prevalent team role that many of the team members share?
Tip:
Among teams of people that do the same job, a few team roles often prevail. For example, within a
research department, the team roles of Specialist and Plant may prevail. A team of business
consultants may mainly comprise Team Workers and Shapers. Such teams may be unbalanced, in that
they may be missing key approaches and outlooks.
▪ If the team is unbalanced, first identify any team weakness that is not naturally covered by
any of the team members. Then identify any potential areas of conflict. For example, too
many Shapers can weaken a team if each Shaper wants to pull the team in a different
direction.
▪ Once you have identified potential weakness, areas of conflict and missing strengths,
consider the options you have to improve and change this. Consider:
▪ Whether an existing team member could compensate by purposefully adopting different a
team role. With awareness and intention, this is sometimes possible.
▪ Whether one or more team members could improve how they work together and with others
to avoid potential conflict of their natural styles.
▪ Whether new skills need to brought onto the team to cover weaknesses.
Tip:
Remember not to depend too heavily on this idea when structuring your team – this is only one of
many, many factors that are important in getting a team to perform at its best.
That said, just knowing about the Belbin Team Roles model can bring more harmony to your team, as
team members learn that there are different approaches that are important in different
circumstances and that no one approach is best all of the time.
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_83.htm
Accessed 1 November 2014
Teams are being increasingly used within Australian workplace, in the belief that they offer the
potential of a more productive work process. However, there are many factors that influence the
actual effectiveness of work-teams and the awareness and management of these is critical for team
processes to work.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

The need for training of all team members in team processes, ongoing team development
techniques, and the realisation that not all tasks are best suited to team processes, are essential
components of a team management strategy.
The role of a manager when leading a team is to plan and communicate with the team so that all
members understand what the team’s objectives, roles, responsibilities and goals are.
The benefits of teams to an organisation are:
▪ Utilise the potential of employees
▪ Offer new solutions
▪ Be responsive to the changing environment and be able to plan for problems
▪ Foster innovation and continuous improvement
▪ Create a sense of belonging in an organisation
▪ Capitalise on workplace diversity and encourage self-management
▪ Ability to take on large scale projects
This will then lead to:
▪ Higher quality
▪ Reduce operational costs and increase productivity
▪ Reduce new product development times
▪ Reduce waste reduction
Effective and efficient teams will have clearly stated goals and objectives that everyone understands
and are able to work together to achieve. These goals and objectives need to be SMART.
It is the role of the team leader to not only lead the team but provide support for members in the
form of mentoring, coaching and training.
All team members will have a specific role within the team and need to be motivated and supported,
a tool that can be useful is the Belbin framework
Finally it must always be understood that teams themselves are not the end goal of this process.
Improved productivity is the end goal, and teams are a means/tool for achieving this goal.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

DEVELOP AND FACILITATE TEAM
COHESION
This section looks at developing and facilitating team cohesion. You will examine the involvement of
the team in planning and decision making, the advantages of participation and the methods for team
members to participate. Focus will be made on the idea that if a team member/s knows what to do
and want to do it, they will willingly caring out work instructions. Influence and involvement should
be aimed at motivating and empowering team members. There must be a balance between task and
process in the team. It discusses the value of rewarding individual effort and providing feedback to
members as well as support to foster personal growth, development and to improve performance.
Managers must be able to handle conflict and grievances both formally and informally with the view
to obtaining a mutually acceptable outcome. Open communication, and learning more about yourself
will help to facilitate open relationships with others and as a manger you will be more receptive to
team member’s issues, concerns and problems.
DEVELOP STRATEGIES TO ENSURE TEAM
MEMBERS HAVE INPUT INTO PLANNING,
DECISION MAKING AND OPERATIONAL ASPECTS
OF WORK TEAMS
What is an operational Plan? It is a plan that is developed to ensure that the work required by the
organisation will meet its goals. Involvement by the whole team is critical for the success of the plan,
as there will be decision making and problem solving that will require team work.
Operational plans refer to the specific types of plans that show exactly how the organisation will
achieve the goals that it has set. It is an action plan and contains details about how the strategic plan
will be achieved. For an operational plan to be successful you must have a clear understanding of the
organisations strategic objectives. As a manager you will need to be able to interpret the strategic
plan into a workable operational plan that converts high level broad strategies into specific things
that will be done by the team in order to achieve the strategic plan outcomes.
Strategic Plan Break down the
strategic plan
into components
Operational Plans

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Research has suggested that organisations that have formal operational planning are more likely to
succeed than those who do not, by developing an operational plan you will be able to use resources
more efficiently, increase quality, make quicker and better decisions and be able to provide staff with
a clear direction so that they know where they are going.
A good written operational plan establishes what needs to be done, who is responsible and sets time
frames. Individuals in the team can refer to it at any time to measure progress and flag problems.
The people you work with are your most important resource. Their skills, knowledge and experience
are the most important thing when developing an effective team. People performing a role
consistently will have invaluable knowledge that can be used to assist in achieving work goals. They
are familiar with what can go wrong, what difficulties there can be and what needs to be done to get
things right. Staff members who are involved and who participate in decision-making and
improvement processes feel most committed to making the changes work. They are vital to the
continuous improvement process.
As a leader, you will have responsibility for ensuring the team has the physical resources that they
need to complete their tasks effectively and achieve their goals, key performance indicators and
objectives.
Creating relationships with staff members will inevitably ensure effective working relationships. Using
the four following attributes of relationships will ensure a great team environment:
▪ Openness: providing information in a timely and effective manner is vital to teams. Being
open and honest means providing ALL the information needed to get the job done.
▪ Honesty: honesty is vital to teamowrk. Without honesty people will not trust you, so make
sure when you give answers and information they are given honestly and sincerely.
▪ Productivity: Achieving results and increasing the productivity can enhance a working
relationship. It is important that you become accountable and cooperate in order to achieve
the teams aims and objectives
▪ Co-operation: this is vital to a team environment. Without co-operation there is no team.
Each person must know their role and perform their part in order to achieve goals and
objectives.
Group decision making
The role of a manager is to create a cohesive team and to promote a culture of cooperation, this in
turn creates an environment in which everyone’s input is encouraged, valued and rewarded.
Decisions in any organisations have the potential to impact organisational goals, objectives and
operations and need careful consideration by the team and not in isolation. Studies show that
managers spend up to 40% of their time in meetings, large part of these meetings involve decision
making.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Certain decisions will need to be made by a group, while others will be made by individuals. There
are advantages and disadvantages to each type.
Advantages of group decision making
▪ A group brings diversity and experience
▪ Provides more complete information
▪ Alternatives can be explored through different skill sets and experiences
▪ Acceptance of the solution: a team that has felt part of the decision is more likely to won and
implement the decision
Democratic; everyone is able to voice an opinion and solutions
▪ Disadvantages of group decision making
▪ Time consuming
▪ The minority can dominate
▪ Groupthink: pressure to conform
▪ Who owns the final decision or is responsible for it?
http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/4?e=fwk-122425-ch11_s03

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Techniques for improving group decision making
When members of a group get together it is important to avoid groupthink. So what is groupthink?
Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs when the desire for the group to reach consensus overrides
individuals desires to speak up, offer alternatives, express views, critique the decision or express an
unpopular opinion.
An example of groupthink was the Challenger Space Shuttle disaster, engineers of the space shuttle
knew about faulty parts and systems months before take-off but did not speak up because they were
afraid of bad press so instead they kept quiet and pushed ahead with the launch anyway.
Irving L Janis coined the term “groupthink” from research that he carried out.
He wanted to know why a team reaches an excellent decision one time and the next decision can be
disastrous. Janis suggested that groupthink occurred when:
▪ The group has a strong persuasive leader
▪ There is a high level of group cohesion
▪ And there is intense pressure from outside the organisation to make a good decision
Signs and symptoms to look for:
▪ Rationalisation
▪ Peer pressure
▪ Complacency
▪ Moral high ground
▪ Stereotyping
▪ Censorship
▪ The illusion of unanimity
How to avoid groupthink
It is important to have a system in place for decision making that might include the following:
▪ Explore objectives
▪ Alternatives
▪ Encourage ideas to be challenged without reprisal
▪ Risk analysis
▪ Test assumptions
▪ Process information objectively
▪ Have at least one contingency plan
Tools that can help you avoid group think
▪ Brainstorming
A typical session consists of 6 to 12 people in a group with a problem to solve. All members have the
opportunity to voice as many alternatives as they can in a given time, no criticism is allowed and all
alternatives are recorded for later discussion.
▪ Nominal group technique (NGT)
This technique was developed to make sure that all participants in a group contribute to the decision
making process. It follows four steps:
1. Each member of the group begins by independently and silently writing down their ideas
2. The group goes in order around the room and shares ideas

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

3. Discussion occurs around each idea
4. Group members vote for their favourite idea using a ranking or rating technique
This technique allows all members of the group to participate and avoid groupthink.
Delphi Technique
This process uses written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing people
together to make a decision. The process follows a set of steps:
1. Questionnaire asking individuals to respond to broad questions such as: what is the problem,
defining objectives, solution proposals?
2. Each subsequent questionnaire is built from the information that has been gathered
3. The process ends when the group reaches consensus.
This can be a very time consuming method and not allow for the development of alternatives that
come about from group interaction.
There are many other methods that can be used for decision making, each have their own pros and
cons.
When you are planning and having to make decisions in relation to operational plans with a work
team it can be helpful to use a tool called the: 7 Step approach to problem solving and decision
making.
It is a process that helps you solve problems effectively and helps you to stay on track by exploring
the problem, searching for the solution and evaluating and acting.
Identify the problem clearly
Problem solving is all too often reactive rather than proactive. So it is important to start by identifying
and finding the right problem to solve
Define the problem and establish objectives
Most people skip this step and go straight to solving the problem, but by defining exactly what you
want to solve is very valuable as it often uncovers other areas that may need attention. It is
important to see every problem as an opportunity, rather than a problem.
Analyse the problem
This is about discovering the facts and setting out what you already know about the problem. By
doing this you are breaking down the problem and getting to the root cause.
Develop opportunities and generate alternative solutions
There are many ways to solve a problem and use your team to create many possible solutions
Select the best solution
This is about weighing up all the possible alternatives and the risk attached to each.
Implement
A solution to a problem is only as good as its implementation. This requires the support of the team
and great communication so that everyone understands that successful implementation is the only
way that the problem can be solved.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Evaluate and learn
It is always good to evaluate and reflect on the process that you followed to solve the problem and
how you might refine the process and the lessons learnt. The show s good practice and continuous
improvement.
Develop policies and procedures to ensure team members take responsibility
for own work and assist others to undertake required roles and
responsibilities
In the ideal world team members will know what to do and will also have the desire and motivation
to perform for personal job satisfaction and fulfilment.
But managing a team or group of different people is difficult and takes time. Team leaders and
managers need to promote a culture that encourages cohesion and responsibility.
Creating an effective team means working together and relying on one another to achieve common
goal/s. Team members need to feel responsible to the team and acknowledge the role that they play
in reaching the teams goals.
Developing and maintaining an effective team
Characteristics of effective teams
▪ Clear purpose and objectives the team shares a common goal
▪ Clear decision making process has been established and agreed upon
▪ The group has a strong sense of belonging
▪ Group has set performance goals and milestones that are demanding yet achievable
▪ Discussion is encouraged, but managed
▪ Group members feel comfortable to be able to express feelings and ideas
▪ Team members know its ok to make a mistake and there isn’t a “blame culture”
▪ The leadership of the group can shift; the importance is getting the job done
▪ Team members support each other, and share resources
What makes teams effective?
Effective teams can be found in many varied situations with many different members. The teams that
seem to be most effective are when the members have a shared culture and the culture promotes
collaboration.
A supportive structure needs structural conditions which are:
▪ Time to meet and talk
▪ Physical proximity
▪ Interdependent work rules
▪ Communications structure
▪ Employee empowerment
The social and human factors that contribute are:
▪ Openness to improvement
▪ Mutual trust and respect
▪ Cognitive and skill-based learning
▪ Supportive leadership

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Organizational socialization
What factors can we employ to help to promote effectiveness in our work teams?
Treat team members as individuals
Each person has skills and abilities to give in their own way. It is important not to let the dominating
or loud person to overshadow other members. This is a situation when the team leader may seek to
find common ground for two different points of view.
Team decision making
Decisions made by the team will be more readily accepted than when the leader takes only his point
of view. Not every decision will be seen by every member of the team as the correct one but at least
they have been able to have their say.
Communication skills
Allow all members to contribute to the team and make sure their view is understood by all. Make
sure your message is clear and try to avoid using jargon that alienates others. Rephrasing what you
have heard from another team member makes it clear what information is being expressed. Be aware
of non-verbal language which may inhibit proper communication and avoid sarcasm as it is often
hurtful if the person believes they are being put down.
Run effective meetings
Meetings are an important time to make sure information is passed between team members and to
and from management. Beginning on time and having an agenda ensures that work time is used
efficiently. The chairperson should keep the meeting on track and only allow one person to speak at a
time. Taking minutes of the meeting and recording decisions taken help to share information and
prompt team members to complete their allocated tasks. Also try to finish on time as a long meeting
can often get off track.
Address conflict
As teams are made up of diverse members so there will be diverse opinions. Conflict can bring a
situation to the group and allow it to be discussed and resolved. Conflict over the ways things are
done can result in improvements. Positivity is vital in conflict situations. It is important to show
empathy to both sides in a disagreement and at time negotiation is the only answer for resolution.
Working together
Working in a team implies working together that is, working as a group not as a group of individuals.
What factors assist in working as a team?
Collaborative planning
Planning together is essential to a team outcome. Team planning gets all the members of the team
involved from the beginning and builds the team’s knowledge about their objectives. It also allows
the group to share its expertise and resources and to jointly delegate roles to the members.
Establish team ground rules
These rules may be informal or formal but each team may develop a different set of rules that suit
their situation. These rules may also be useful when cases of conflict or differing opinions arise.
Negotiation is an important skill teams as consensus may not always be reached.
Encouragement of individual and team efforts

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Each of us appreciates receiving encouragement and praise for tasks well done. This applies also to
individuals in teams and the team as a whole. The team situation allows individuals to encourage
each other, the leader to praise the team and the management to provide positive feedback to the
team. Friendliness, support and availability of the team leader will provide a positive framework for
the team’s efforts.
Address issues and problems
Attending to issues or problems that may arise in the team as soon as possible will create a feeling of
supportiveness and group strength. Team relationships may be strained by any number of issues but
an important one to identify is stress. If the team is not conducive then working together may cause
stress to the individuals. Do the individuals have stress related matters outside of work that are
impacting? Are two people just not able to work together? Stress can escalate so any resolution that
can be achieved may allow the team to continue its work.
Facilitating work teams
What are some of the ways to encourage team members to participate in the team’s activities?
Encourage participation in meetings. Use some of these techniques to make the meetings more
valuable:
▪ Use paraphrasing to make sure you know what is intended. So what you’re saying is….
▪ Check for understanding by asking participants to clarify their view
▪ Compliment interesting or useful comments
▪ Use examples to encourage more discussion
▪ Mediate between members with differing opinions
▪ Connect ideas form different members
▪ Change the group around e.g. break into small groups
▪ Summarise the main points
Manage the time available and encourage the team members to look at how they manage their time
Delegate: With teams there are a group of people available so delegation is a good way to go to get
more done or to get more ideas on the table. Delegating to the appropriate person is important so
think about what must be achieved and then look at who has the skills to complete this task.
Support team problem solving: Teams are composed of different individuals so teams have the ability
to generate ideas of how to solve problems that may arise. The leader may help by pointing out steps
to solve problems such as: define the problem, analyse the problem, evaluate possible situations,
make a decision, put the solution into operation.
It is important to establish an environment that supports the team and that there are sufficient
policies and procedures in place that enable the team to take responsibility for their own work and to
assist others.
There are many policies and procedures that are written specifically for team members. These may
include:
▪ Organisational guidelines and systems that govern operational functions
▪ Procedures that detail the activities that must be carried out for the completion of actions
and tasks
▪ Standard operating procedures
You should ensure you have policies and procedures that outline how team members can take
responsibility for their own work and how they can assist others with their workload. For example:

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Below is a Policy on Employee Supervision and Appraisal used as an example.

1. Background
Bowman Health Clinic is a non-profit organisation established for the purpose of supporting people with
disabilities and their families living in the Shire of Elaine.
The services offered by Bowman Health Clinic include group home accommodation, in-home respite, out
of-home respite, home help and community access.
Community Enterprise is a non-profit, community organisation which is governed by a management
committee elected annually by the members. Community Enterprise receives all of its operating funds
from the Western Australian Government in the form of an annual grant.
2. Purpose and Scope
The purpose of this policy is to set out specific procedures and performance standards to ensure that
employees and volunteers of the organisation are properly supervised and their performance is regularly
appraised. This policy is framed around Standard 8 of the Disability Services Standards (1993) and
provides for the:
Implementation of a performance based supervision system appropriate to the employee’s duties and
responsibilities
Documentation of the supervision process
Linkage of training and development goals to the supervision process
Linkage of performance appraisals to the supervision process and training and development goals
This policy applies to all of the organisation’s programs and activities.
3. Policy Statement
The organisation is committed to ensuring that all employees are properly supervised and their
performance is regularly appraised. The policy aims to achieve this objective by implementing a formal
supervision system linked to agreed training and development goals and an objective performance
appraisal process. The policy will assist the organisation to meet its obligations under Standard 8 of the
Disability Services Standards (1993) to practice sound management standards which maximise outcomes
for consumers.
4. Procedures
The following procedures are to be implemented to ensure that the organisation meets its policy
objective of ensuring that all employees are properly supervised and appraised.
The organisation will:
4.1 Establish formal supervision procedures for all organisation employees and volunteers.
4.2 Ensure that every employee and volunteer is allocated a supervisor and receives regular
supervision.
4.3 Provide all employees in supervisory roles with appropriate written information and/or formal
training on performance based supervision.
4.4 Ensure that all volunteers receive regular supervision in a manner and at a frequency that is
appropriate to their tasks and responsibilities.
4.5 Ensure that all employees have one formal supervision session per month with their allocated
supervisor.
4.6 Require the supervisor to maintain written records of the content and outcomes of each
employee supervision session.
BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016
4.7 Require the supervisor to maintain an Employee Training and Development Record for each
employee in accordance with the Policy on Employee Training and Development.
4.8 Complete an annual performance appraisal on all organisation employees at least once per year.
4.9 Include in the annual performance appraisal a rating of the employee’s performance against the
duty statement, outcome of training and development activities, employee strengths and areas for
improvement, and recommendations for further training and development.
5. Performance Standards
The following performance standards must be met to ensure that the procedures specified in Section 4
are implemented effectively:
5.1 All new employees have been provided with a copy of the organisation’s Policy on Employee
Supervision and Appraisal and a staff copy of the policy is kept in each service outlet.
5.2 All employees and volunteers have an identified supervisor.
5.3 Employees have received formal supervision at not less than monthly intervals.
5.4 Supervisors understand their role as a supervisor.
5.5 Written records of supervision sessions have been maintained in an appropriate file by the
supervisor.
5.6 Employees have a written annual appraisal of their performance completed by their supervisor at
least annually and within one month of their appointment anniversary date.
5.7 Any grievances have been addressed in accordance with the supervision and appraisal principles
and procedures outlined in this policy and the Policy on Staff Grievances.
6. Review of the Policy
This policy will be reviewed on a two yearly basis. However, if at any time the legislative, policy or
funding environment is so altered that the policy is no longer appropriate in its current form, the policy
will be reviewed immediately and amended accordingly. 1 (This policy was based on the Community
Enterprise Inc. Policy on Management Committee Members. Code of Conduct)

As you can see there are procedures that outline the employee’s responsibilities in relation to their
own work and assisting others. There will be many more that are required for your organisation and if
you do not have them you will need to develop them in accordance with the organisations guidelines
in relation to developing policies and procedures.
1 http://www.disability.wa.gov.au/Global/Publications/For%20disability%20service%2…

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Provide feedback to team members to encourage, value and reward
individual and team efforts and contributions
The process of effective communication within a team is critical to team success. As a front line
manager you will need to support your team in order to maximise performance and enable team
member’s personal growth and development. A culture that encourages maturity and honesty in the
process of giving and receiving feedback will help your team to improve their performance and
become more effective as a team and as individuals.
Working in teams provides a many opportunities to give and receive feedback. Before you give
feedback you must consider things like:
▪ What is the goal of giving the feedback?
▪ When and where to give the feedback
▪ The recipient/s of the feedback
▪ Who you will deliver the feedback; tools and techniques
▪ Reponses to the feedback
Providing regular informal feedback
Performance feedback has a high correlation with job satisfaction and employees are generally not
satisfied when feedback in the workplace is not effectively conducted.
Feedback illustrates what interpersonal communication is all about; a combination of information,
mutual understanding and recognition.
Feedback can be:
▪ General or be very specific
▪ Positive or negative
Performance feedback may also be used at different times. This is generally categories as occurring
either at:
▪ The time that the performance was observed
▪ A separate time from the task completion
Managers need to consider the use of the primacy-recency factor. This means that people tend to
remember the first and last things that are said, more than they remember the information in the
middle.
Feedback may contain negatives – a need for improvement, as opposed to positives – a
reinforcement of excellent behaviour. A manager can choose to leave the employee with feedback
that focuses on a positive or deliberately choose to leave the employee with feedback that focuses
on a negative – such as a need for immediate improvement.
Performance feedback generally refers to informal communication in the workplace about an
employee’s abilities to meet the required outcomes and standards. The feedback and communication
are generally not documented, or it may be noted in a manager’s diary.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Providing Effective Feedback
Feedback does not help resolve the causes of the problem, grievance or conflict? Consider throwing
the solution search back to the team member. Let them place the words around what represents a
satisfactory solution to the issues or matters underpinning the problem.
Listen actively and be willing to let them navigate a way to the root cause. Be prepared to co-operate
and offer assistance within your means and capabilities, even if some expectations cannot be fully
met. If a possible solution arises, confirm what can be done and be specific. Do not raise
expectations, and do not promise to take actions and adopt solutions that cannot be delivered.
Feedback is a vital learning tool that enables the identification of areas for improvement and the
ongoing support of learning activities. It is an important component of coaching and in monitoring
learning outcomes. Some of the reasons why feedback is not used more effectively in organisations is
that it requires communication skills that are not always present in individuals and negative feedback
is often ignored. People are usually happy to give and receive positive feedback but often feel
uncomfortable when it comes to addressing areas for improvement.
Focus on specific behaviours
When giving feedback try to focus on the behaviour rather than the person. Avoid value judgements
such as “You have a bad attitude.” Not only is a statement like this too vague to offer any practical
suggestions for improvement, it is also guaranteed to provoke a defensive reaction. Even positive
feedback should state how the person has done a good job, according to their clearly identifiable
actions.
Consider the timing of feedback
It is much more effective to provide feedback as soon as possible after the behaviour. This establishes
a link between the feedback and the behaviour that enables accurate reflection. Feedback prior to
the behaviour may also be effective in enabling the manager to provide constructive advice before a
mistake occurs.
Focus on behaviour that the receiver can do something about
There is really no point giving feedback about someone’s personality or other personal issues that
they cannot change. This is incredibly alienating for an individual and leads to feelings of anger and
resentment. This doesn’t mean that some topics are not to be discussed, but it is much better to
focus sensitively on how the individual may improve using the skills at their disposal. Use feedback to
focus on goals rather than personalities.
Consider the needs of the person receiving the feedback
A previous recommendation suggested providing feedback straight after the event. This can be
dangerous sometimes when you are angry about what has happened. Do not use a feedback
opportunity to “dump” on the person. This might make you feel better, but it will inevitably damage
your relationship. As in the previous example, attempt to understand how the other person feels and
provide your perspective in a rational manner.
Solicit feedback rather than impose it
Feedback is a two-way street; you can’t expect to give it without also receiving some in return.
Almost all of the previous examples of good feedback involve a question. Remember that questions
enable you to focus the individual’s attention on important underlying issues in a productive, non

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

defensive manner. Your point of view is not always the best, and you should not always try to impose
your view on another. Be prepared to work on an issue cooperatively and use feedback as a useful
tool for uncovering problems before they eventuate.
Reinforcing excellence in performance
Recognition is a communications tool that reinforces and rewards the most important outcomes.
When you recognise people effectively, you reinforce the actions and behaviours you most want to
see your team repeat.
An effective recognition system is simple, immediate, and powerfully reinforcing.
When you consider employee recognition processes, you need to develop recognition that is equally
powerful for both the organisation and the team member.
Recognition should be:

Jim Brintnall, in his article, “What Makes a Good Reward?” in Recognition News, Vol. 2, Issue 2, said “recognition has to be
SMART! That means the rewards should be:
• Sincere – Above all else, a good reward should reflect a genuine expression of appreciation. Token
acknowledgements leave something to be desired
• Meaningful – To endure a motivating influence, rewards should be aligned with the values, goals, and priorities
that matter the most
• Adaptable – The diverse workplace demands alternatives. Consider creative options to keep your program fresh.
No single reward format works for everyone all the time. [Recognition should be adapted and valuable to the
receiver.]
• Relevant – Some personal dimension is essential to a good reward. No matter how formal or informal, expensive
or affordable, the relevance of any recognition will be improved with a personal touch – it’s a little thing that
makes a big difference. [Recognition should be provided by someone of significance to the receiver.]
• Timely – It is important that rewards respond to the behavior they are intending to reinforce. Don’t let too much
time pass or the reward may be devalued and credibility eroded. To ensure that employees tie recognition into the
work unit or agency’s strategic goals, be certain to tell employees what they did right and how it interacts with
the goals. Provide the opportunity for recognition to come from a variety of sources. Peer-to-peer recognition
usually is highly valued by employees. It can be used to develop a supportive work environment”
“For many employees, recognition received through the expression of genuine appreciation for the work they do is a reward.
Being involved in a project or receiving special training may be another’s reward. Make no mistake, however, that most
employees would not turn down a monetary, non-monetary or recognition leave reward!”2

2 http://www.depts.ttu.edu/operations/Planning-and-Training-Documents/EmployeeDevelopment/Recognition-Guide.pdf

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

“In developing your rewards incorporating gifts or prizes, remember that some employees will
receive them and others will not. Make sure you understand the goals of your reward and if a
particular reward works well in your work unit.
To ensure the recognition is motivating team members and adding value to the business the
following criteria must be met:
▪ You need to establish criteria for what performance or contribution constitutes rewardable
behaviour or actions
▪ All team members must be eligible for the recognition
▪ The recognition must provide specific information about what behaviours or actions are
being rewarded and recognised
▪ Anyone who then performs at the level or standard stated in the criteria receives the reward
▪ The recognition should occur as close to the performance of the actions as possible, so the
recognition reinforces behaviour you want to encourage3

Non-recommended feedback techniques Recommended feedback techniques
• creating a closed, disrespectful
environment
• creating an open, respectful
environment
• not eliciting thoughts and feelings
prior to feedback
• eliciting thoughts and feelings prior
to feedback
• being judgmental • being nonjudgmental
• focusing on personality • focusing on behaviours
• basing feedback on hearsay • basing feedback on observed facts
• basing feedback on generalizations • basing feedback on specifics
• giving too much/little feedback • giving the right amount of feedback
• not suggesting ideas for
improvements
• suggesting ideas for improvements
• basing feedback on unknown,non
negotiated goals
• basing feedback on well known
negotiated goals

Feedback can be formal and informal.
There are many tools that can assist a frontline manager in giving feedback, these include:
3 http://humanresources.about.com/od/rewardrecognition/a/recognition_tip.htm

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

360 degree feedback
This is a highly structured method of giving feedback that involves team members, peers and
managers rating performance, it can be done anonymously and the team member receives a report.
360 degree feedback can be very confronting and needs to be managed carefully.
Johari Window
This model can be used to begin to understand group dynamics and interpersonal behaviour.
It can help with feedback.
The model describes how group members are willing to share open information with the group, but
will have sections of their personality that are hidden or blind to the group and to themselves.
Feedback can help members of groups open up the hidden or blind areas to facilitate more open
discussion and communication within the group and within one’s self.
http://brettselby.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Johari-Window2.jpeg
Feedback is a valuable tool that can be used to improve team performance. Feedback works best
when it is given in a constructive and timely manner. Managers who instil a culture where feedback is
both given and received positively will reap the rewards of a more effective, involved and informed
team.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

RECOGNISE AND ADDRESS ISSUES, CONCERNS
AND PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY TEAM MEMBERS
OR REFER TO RELEVANT PERSONS AS REQUIRED
Problems occur every day in the workplace, recognising issues and problems as a potential source of
conflict and dealing with the problem promptly and proactively rather than reactively is the frontline
manager’s job.
Being able to manage disputes and grievances is a skill and ensures a happy and healthy workplace
for a team in any organisation. It is important to remember that problems are unavoidable, can
provide a source of valuable information, are an indicator of team performance and progress, identify
areas that need modification or change.
Despite the best made plans problems will still occur and that is why as a team it is critical to have
contingency plans and a team culture that fosters continuous improvement.
DEVELOP PROCESSES TO ENSURE THAT ISSUES,
CONCERNS AND PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY
TEAM MEMBERS ARE RECOGNISED AND
ADDRESSED
It is the manager’s role to recognise and respond appropriately to problems, it does not mean that
the manager has to solve the problem but that they should be able to facilitate its resolution. This
can include:
▪ Facilitating problem scoping/resolution within the team
▪ Taking the concerns to a higher level of management
▪ Engaging external consultants, expertise or resources.
Reasons for team failure
Patrick Lencioni in the five dysfunctions of a team states that there are five reasons a team fails:
▪ Absence of trust
▪ Fear of conflict
▪ Lack of commitment
▪ Avoidance of accountability
▪ Inattention to results
It is important that a team has strong channels of communication and a two way feedback system at
the operational level. That way you will be able to avoid problem and monitor if performance is going
downhill.
Signs that a team may need help can include things like:
▪ Lack of team motivation and enthusiasm
▪ Team not being able to reach consensus

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ In fighting and bickering
▪ Deadlines being missed or constantly revised
▪ Personal agendas taking the focus from team goals
▪ Dominant team members overpowering of the team and decision making
▪ Team members not sharing resources or information
Steps to effective problem solving
Contingency Planning
Every business should have contingency plans, that address risks or uncontrollable events that might
impact the team and the work of the team.
Some things to think about when preparing a contingency plan might include:
▪ The main goal is to maintain operations: what is the minimum level of service or function
that will be required?
▪ What might be triggers?
▪ What are resource implications?
▪ Define success
▪ Identify all the teams’ needs

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Manage the risks
▪ Keep the plan simple
Team- based contingency planning

Brainstorming session Run a session with the team and list all possible concerns,
issues and risks that could stand in the way of reaching the
teams goals, group and categories in a system of likely
hood to happen or impact
Develop solutions Work in groups to develop solutions that could work and
assign them to the risks
Develop avoidance strategies For each of the risk areas develop strategies or trigger
points that might be able to avoid the problem before it
happens
Incorporate strategies Place the strategies into the plan and make sure the team
are aware of them.
Prepare checks Prepare checklists and systems to help identify and record
the risk

▪ Failure to effectively consider the team in the decision-making process will result in goals not
being achieved or outcome reaching their full potential.
▪ Cohesion happens in a team when everyone understands the common purpose of the team
and works together to achieve the team’s goals.
▪ Developing team cohesion results in the team members sharing skills and knowledge within
the team to effectively work together to improve team performance
▪ The frontline manager must be ready and able to give up authority and delegate tasks that
match team member’s skills to tasks.
▪ Team members must be encouraged to provide input into decision making, planning, and
actions. That way they will be more likely to take ownership and responsibility for outcomes
and the Team culture.
▪ Feedback needs to be a two way process and be constructive. It can be provided formally or
informally using tools such as 360 degree feedback, and performance reviews.
▪ Problems, disputes and conflict can occur and frontline managers need to be aware of the
sign and symptoms of these.
▪ Contingency planning is vital and is the role of the whole team.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

FACILITATE TEAMWORK
Team members need to be encouraged to participate in team activities such as team meetings; this
will lead to better facilitation of team work. This section will focus on team interactions and the
importance of dialogue and communication, business planning and the development of standards of
performance as a part of the overall performance analysis framework. Methods for collecting
information to help identify performance problems will be discussed and how to support team
members to be able to achieve performance goals.
Frontline managers should be able to facilitate communication between team members and
encourage participation. Frontline managers need to act as good role models that foster and
encourage a productive team.
ENCOURAGE TEAM MEMBERS AND
INDIVIDUALS TO PARTICIPATE IN AND TAKE
RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEAM ACTIVITIES,
INCLUDING COMMUNICATION PROCESSES
Team member involvement in team activities and good communication within teams are important
factors that lead to team effectiveness. This can be facilitated by formal and informal team meetings,
in which team members are encouraged to share their thoughts and ideas and participate in team
decision making.
Teams develop their own internal cultures. The positive side of internal culture development is that it
encourages conformity, innovation, change and sharing of resources and information within the
team.
Problems will arise if the team becomes too exclusive; the culture becomes stagnant and does not
encourage change or innovation. Outside views are not welcome and the team becomes inclusive
and does not support the goals of the wider organization. When this happens team can become silos:
they are entities within an organization that act separate rather than combine skills and expertise and
do not meet the needs of the customers or the organizational goals.
To prevent these problems, managers need to promote a climate of open inquiry and debate. The
team needs s to assess and evaluate its own performance in relation to the big picture and build a
culture which focuses on consensus, continuous improvement and cooperation.
Valuing, understanding and accepting difference can be a team’s greatest strength and also be one of
its greatest challenges. Diversity and difference is valuable in team development as it provides a way
of bringing new or fresh ideas to problem solving and decision making. As a manager you need to
encourage cooperation and acceptance of diversity, not competitiveness or exclusion.
Many teams evolve a culture rather than actively working towards a specific set of values and
behaviors. As the team progresses through the 5 stages of team development, most team evolve
their cultural values as they become accustom to each other.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

DELEGATION
Delegation is regarded as a legitimate role that managers must undertake. When delegating work (or
“tasks”), it is important that responsibilities are clearly defined.
Store policies in this regard may encourage – or prohibit – delegation of certain tasks to certain
positions, or limit the extent of the delegation that may occur. Further policies may indicate the
remuneration implications that are likely to flow from the delegation of certain tasks.
In this workplace context, delegation has two meanings:
It can mean the allocating to team members tasks and responsibilities that are part of their normal
duties
It can also mean allocating some of your own supervisory/managerial duties (tasks and
responsibilities) to team members who are willing to take these on4
Delegating to staff tasks that are part of their duties
The way that you go about delegation of tasks and responsibilities to team members depends on the
level of staff you are supervising.
Obviously, the more responsibility a staff member has, the less likely you are to delegate specific
tasks and responsibilities to them. You are more likely in this instance to agree on goals or objectives
and the employee will then go about determining and prioritising their own tasks.
But with less experienced staff and more junior or lower level positions; more direction is required on
the part of the manager.
How to delegate
Delegation is a great way to train team members. It gives them more responsibility, it stretches them
within the workplace and it demonstrates that you have faith in them as thinking, intelligent people
who can be trusted to do the job right and do the right thing by the store.
BUT, the delegation has to be done properly, or it can be one of the most disastrous and
counterproductive things you ever do. Some points to consider when delegating tasks and
responsibilities in this instance are:
▪ Make sure you are clear about the task to be done, and the responsibility to be delegated
▪ Explain why the task has to be done, why the responsibility is being delegated, and why it has
to be done in the way you are specifying – clear communication and full and detailed
explanation (as is so often the case in so many other areas) is critical here, too
▪ Choose the right time and place to inform the team member about the delegation – it is best
to do this in private rather than in public, so don’t do it where the person may feel under
pressure
▪ Plan the explanation – work out what you’ll say, the sequence you’ll explain it in, the benefits
of them being delegated to and any drawbacks that might be involved
▪ Plan for an appropriate amount of time to discuss things – don’t hurry the explanation or it
can be seen as manipulation
▪ Provide whatever instructions are necessary – in the correct and logical sequence, explaining
all of the steps
4 http://www.waseantourism.com/ft/Approved%20Toolboxes%20&%20Competency%20stan…

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Provide training and demonstration – to encourage participation and reduce possible
anxieties
▪ Continually check that the staff member genuinely understands what is being said or shown
to them – ask them questions or get them to demonstrate what is actually required
▪ Give them positive feedback to make them positive and confident – never delegate any task
where you believe the person may fail
Implement staff communication and motivation programs
There are numerous ways to communicate with staff. They include:
▪ Individual, one-on-one talks
▪ Formal, group meetings
▪ Non-verbal communication – never underestimate the value of body language throughout the
working day
▪ Written communications
Listen to your staff – there may be ways that they prefer to be supported, and certain communication
styles that they prefer.
Internal communication
It is essential that new staff be informed of the protocols that apply to communicating within the
store. Failure to follow these store guidelines can create confusion, cause conflict and generate
feelings of ill-will.
The chain of command is simply the hierarchy that exists in the store and the organisational lines that
connect the different positions/job roles. Traditionally, team members are expected to report to the
person shown on the organisational chart as being the next one above them (or, in organisational
charts that are laid out horizontally, to their right).
In some cases, team members will be expected to communicate with numerous people while in other
settings all the communications go through just one person.
This style of reporting or communication ensures that information progresses through an
organisation in the “correct” sequence for that business. No people, or positions, are skipped – things
move “along the chain” in a predictable fashion according to preconceived arrangements.
Where this style of communication is the norm, you must ensure that you point out to staff that
going over someone’s head is to be frowned on. Team members must be urged to communicate
according to the lines set down in the organisational chart.
Internal documentation
Not all communication is verbal, and most stores have a series of documents that function as
communications – message pads, order forms, sales dockets, memos, maintenance requests,
requisitions and applications for leave.
Make sure you inform staff of what documentation they need to complete, what needs to be
included, when they must be used, how many copies there must be, and where the document goes
once filled in.
It can be useful to give all new team members a completed sample document they can use as a
reference.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Logbook/communication book
Some businesses have a book of some sort that serves as the communication book for the office or
the department. Basically, this book, which can simply be an exercise book, is kept in a central
location and used by management to communicate with staff and by staff to communicate with each
other.
Where this is used, you must stress to team members that they are expected to check the book daily
and preferably twice a day. The book can advise of problems, suspicious people, upcoming meetings,
roster changes, new products and training arrangements.
MOTIVATION
A pivotal aspect of leading a team is to create an environment in which team members are motivated
to achieve high standards of performance. This is important for you and your career; you need to
realise that the way your staff perform is a direct reflection of your abilities. Management will judge
you, by the way, your staff members perform.
Motivation is a way of improving staff morale, gaining the cooperation of others, maintaining or
positively changing the culture of the business and raising team cohesion.
Practical suggestions for motivating employees
There is no simple, universal, single way of motivating all team members; staff members have
individual needs, and motivation programs should match their personal triggers.
Some guidelines are:
▪ Recognise individual differences
▪ Match people to jobs
▪ Use goals
▪ Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable
▪ Individualise rewards
▪ Link rewards to performance
▪ Check the system for equity
▪ Do not ignore money
It is definitely a difficult question to identify what motivates people. Much of the research on
motivation talks about incentives and rewards, which can be very successful; however, it is known
that for many people, job motivation is driven by more personal reasons – money is frequently not a
prime motivator. The motivating factors can be:
▪ A sense of achievement
▪ Recognition for a job well done
▪ Enjoying the work itself
▪ Having responsibility
▪ Having opportunities for advancement
If you’re not sure about what works as a motivator for your team members – try asking them. This
straightforward approach can create a beautiful win-win result for everyone.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

EMPOWERMENT
Empowerment is the handing down of power to employees in an organisation. Power increases
motivation because people are able to improve their own effectiveness by choosing how to do a task
using their own creativity, ideas and methods.
Empowering employees’ means giving them the ability to act more freely and independently in their
jobs through providing them with:
▪ Information
▪ Knowledge
▪ Power
▪ Rewards
Never empower your staff unless you have permission to do so.
Opportunities for individual development
Opportunities for individual development within the organisation include:
▪ Internal and external training and/or professional development
▪ Change in job responsibilities
▪ Opportunity for greater responsibility
▪ Formal promotion
▪ Chance to perform in a higher position
▪ Becoming a mentor for someone
▪ Leading a training session for another department
▪ Being sent to a conference or similar as the business representative
Remember that, as a general rule, it is better spending time motivating and training staff than just
giving orders.
SUPPORT THE TEAM IN IDENTIFYING AND
RESOLVING WORK PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
A successful team is one in which the team plans for success. The team will know where it wants to
be, its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and the standards of performance that it
needs to get there. The team will work within a performance analysis framework and will have
effective follow through on its direction, roles and planning. But things can go wrong in team
situations and leaders need to be able to recognise and react in a supportive leadership style.
Problems can come in all shapes and sizes and have various levels of severity and urgency; they can
fall into various general categories:
▪ People related issues
▪ Task and process
▪ Resource issues
▪ Time issues
▪ Communication based
▪ Cultural and diversity
▪ Leadership

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

If a problem is detected in a team it is your responsibility to express your concern to the team or
individuals, by stating the problems you see it. The team will be clear that you have recognised it and
that you are taking steps to resolve the problem. It is a good idea to seek feedback from team
members so that you can clarify any misconceptions that you or other team members might have.
Once the problem is understood, the leader should encourage the team to collaborate and work on
the best solution. The more input from the team the greater the like hood that the problem will be
solved. It also provides members of the team ownership; therefore they will be willing to invest the
time and energy to resolve the team’s problem.
Conduct performance management in accordance with organisational
protocols and timelines
Most organisations will have set times when appraisals are conducted. In Australia, this is usually in
June and sometimes a second one in December, aligning with the Australian financial year.
Organisations operating in different financial years may have a different time. For example,
Australian companies that are Japanese subsidiaries have a financial year April 1 to March 30, and so
the performance appraisal is moved accordingly.
It is important to observe other protocols that exist with appraisals. These will be unique to each
organisation. For example, some companies have quotas on the percentage of people that can be
given a certain score. Statistically on a five point scale the score of all employees should be spread
according to a bell curve, so that 2.5% of people score 1, 15% score 2, 65% score 3, 15% score 4 and
2.5% score 5. However, some companies allow a skew to the right so that the average score is no
longer 3, but a little higher. This is usually done to manage employees self-esteem, as most people
believe that they are better than ‘average’. The dark columns show the distribution of scores under a
normal bell curve, the light curve shows typical skewing.
Monitoring performance on a continuous basis

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

It is important to remember that performance needs to be continually monitored. There is no value
in leaving difficult issues to appraisal time when the employee has no chance to rectify them, and
undesirable behaviour or habits have become ingrained.
Performance, particularly underperformance, needs to be monitored regularly. This can be done
with mini-deadlines for part of the task to get completed. Setting goals along the way is a useful tool
to stop work being left to the last minute?
This topic is built upon in the next element. For example, if you were writing a book, you might aim
to have each chapter finished by the end of each month. Mini deadlines, aligning with the overall
deadline keep you on track.
Identifying and addressing poor performance
When tasks have not been completed to the manager’s satisfaction, remedial action must be taken to
address the situation. This includes deciding on the cause of the poor work performance.
Poor work results can be caused by a number of factors and combinations of factors. This includes
consideration of the following:
Poor task allocation
If the task was allocated to an inappropriate person, then the task completion is likely to be poor.
Poor task allocation may occur because of:
Manager allocating the task to a staff member who is not capable of completing the task properly
Insufficient employee training/skill development to complete the task to the required standards
To manage poor task allocation, the manager will need to redeem the situation by considering the
following:
▪ Managing to have the task completed properly so deadlines, etc. are met
▪ Identifying and dealing with the problem that stopped the employee from completing the
task properly. This could involve development such as coaching
▪ Recognising that particular people do not have the abilities to complete particular tasks, so
they are not allocated to them again
Poor communication of the task requirements
Communication of the task requirements must include information about the standards to be
achieved. These include:
▪ Time frames
▪ Specific outcomes such as quality/quantity details
To manage poor communication, the manager needs to reconsider the:
▪ Communication method used
▪ Amount of information that was given
This may identify why the communication was not clearly understood and highlight a better
way to organise the task completion next time.
Insufficient support
This includes:

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Insufficient physical resources, such as equipment or packaging, to complete the task
properly
▪ Insufficient staff resources to simultaneously manage other tasks such as customer service
To manage situations where tasks were not completed because of poor/insufficient
resources, the manager must consider the following:
▪ The physical resources that need to be provided for this task to be completed properly next
time
▪ Staff support that needs to be present so that the task can be completed properly in the
future
Motivational problems
This includes:
▪ Poor individual employee’s motivation to incorporate task completion into the day’s routine
▪ Poor general attitude in the store to the achievement of assigned tasks
To manage poor motivation, the manager needs to consider what can be done to improve on
individual’s willingness and cooperation and/or to improve a general apathy that is occurring in the
business.
This includes consideration of the following:
▪ Asking questions to identify the specifics of what is de-motivating staff members so it can be
addressed
▪ Offering rewards such as verbal acknowledgement or the offer of other more-prized duties
for completing task to meet the required standards
▪ Using punishments such as informal feedback, reduced hours or task allocation to show that
poor performance is linked to sustainability in the business
▪ Improving morale in the store where possible, by involving staff opinions and ideas in the
decision making and store organisation
Addressing poor performance
Most people don’t have a problem receiving positive feedback but it is often hard to address areas
where performance has not met expectations. People often don’t want to be the bearer of bad news
for fear of offending the other person and having to deal with their defensiveness.
The following tips are for providing constructive negative feedback:
▪ Use a source who has established credibility and respect;
▪ Use hard data to back up your position (e.g. sales figures and other performance measures or
specific examples of poor performance);
▪ Be objective, focus on the behaviour, not the person;
▪ End on a positive note, e.g. “Well it’s happened; what can we do about it?”
Building a communication relationship with a staff member will rely on how well you conduct
interpersonal communication during face-to-face contact. This relationship also may have to be the
basis used to address poor performance. While the organisation may have formal processes for
dealing with the poor performance it is still the responsibility of the relevant manager to address the
issue.
Many managers may wish to avoid this situation, but the cost of not doing so will cause further
problems.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Poor performance may be addressed by direct interview to diagnose the ‘problems/issues’ or a
coaching session. However, poor performance may also lead to counselling. Serious breaches or
repeat poor performance can lead to more formal grievance procedures and even dismissal.
Many managers prefer to address poor performance through the organisation’s formal
structures. This method is often chosen for both legal and policy reasons. Sometimes, however, it is
used because the poor performance was not addressed early enough as the manager wished to avoid
conflict.
ENSURE OWN CONTRIBUTION TO WORK TEAM
SERVES AS A ROLE MODEL FOR OTHERS AND
ENHANCES THE ORGANISATION’S IMAGE FOR
ALL STAKEHOLDERS
The style of leadership can have a major impact on the success of the team. Most team members
would identify with the following characteristics that make a good leader:
▪ Clear sense of direction
▪ Commitment
▪ Credibility
▪ Desire to support and lead the team
▪ Highly motivated and enthusiastic
▪ Knowledge and expertise
▪ The ability to make the team work as a group and not as individuals towards a shared goal
▪ Able to delegate
▪ Good communicator
▪ Enthusiastic
▪ Able to shoulder responsibility
Leaders and managers should be involved in the growth and development of teams and in their own
personal self-development. There is a need to assess your current situation and identify appropriate
courses of action to address your own needs and future goals. This is part of role modelling to staff
members. If you address your own shortfalls in skills and knowledge, staff members feel more
inclined to do the same.
What to assess?
When assessing your performance, there are three areas worthy of consideration:
▪ Personal attitude – This is the way you perform your job, your work ethic, your predisposition
to working overtime, going that extra step, putting in some extra effort. Some people have
the right attitude, some don’t, and some have it one day and not the next. You have to know
whether or not you need an attitude adjustment
▪ Your skills – These are your actual practical workplace skills as well as your interpersonal and
communication skills. They may embrace selling skills, as well as demonstrating products, or
they may embrace managerial tasks such as budgets, rostering staff, negotiating, delegation,
conflict resolution, problem-solving, team building or leadership

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Your knowledge -This embraces your industry knowledge, your product knowledge, and your
knowledge about the facilities, policies, and services of your organisation
A commitment to lifelong learning and continuous improvement is a key to following through and
actually addressing identified self-development needs.
When assessing your existing competencies and development needs, they must be identified in
relation to your current position and your future career aspirations. This means you need to be aware
of what you want for your next career step, and where you want your career to take you.
There is little point in deciding to undertake a marketing degree if you aim is management, and little
point in doing an accounting course if the desire is to remain in sales.
Developing and reviewing personal development objectives
Once the need for personal self-development has been accepted, there is a need to develop realistic,
achievable and challenging objectives that will enable you to progress.
A word of warning! When setting these objectives, it is important to keep your eye on the ball. There
are numerous examples of ambitious managers setting self-development objectives that are so
demanding that their accomplishment badly affects their workplace performance and the job they
are being paid for suffers.
There is little point in gaining a qualification but losing a promotion, or jeopardising future
advancement, in the process. Being realistic is probably the most important of all considerations:
▪ Can you afford the course financially?
▪ Can you commit to the required time? Even part-time courses can require 20 hours/week
minimum
▪ Will this course actually bring you closer to your identified objective, or is it simply a “feel
good” course that effectively achieves nothing?
▪ Does management at the store recognise and/ or value this course? Will they think better of
you for having done it?
▪ Will the course deliver the skills and knowledge that your planning/objectives have deemed
necessary?
▪ Can you still engage in the other activities that you need to – social, family, volunteer, and
sport – while undertaking the course or will you be too tired or otherwise engaged?
Many people who start a course of self-development never review what they are doing – they simply
start whatever it is and press on until it is finished, regardless. This may be seen as being focused,
committed and single-minded, but it may also be regarded as a waste of time, money and effort.
It may be that after 12 months, something has changed that necessitates a rethink of your selfdevelopment program. If you stick to a commitment made 12 months ago, then you may be wasting
another four years on something that will be useless when completed.
Worse still, those who know what you are doing may see this as pig-headedness and a failure to
adapt to changing conditions – and that can sound the death knell career-wise.
One way of staying on track is to consult regularly with the person you have developed as your
workplace mentor. It is very useful to periodically check with this person about what it is they think
you should be focusing on.
Their perspective is likely to be different from yours, and may well be based on the information you
may not have – this can be knowledge they have about takeovers or information about upcoming
changes.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Above all, when your self-development is not achieving the results you intended, it is time to make
some changes – it is better to accept that the past 12 months have been wasted (in truth though, no
training is ever a total waste of time) than perpetuate the position and press on. Bite the bullet,
identify a better option and go for it.
Accepting responsibility for self-development
Central to achieving your personal objectives is the absolute need for you to accept persona)
responsibility for your achievement. If you are to succeed you must with total certainty, realise that
whether you succeed or fail, is 100% your responsibility.
As they say “if it is to be, it is up to me”.
You must not allow yourself to be sucked into the thinking that permits you to transfer responsibility
to anyone or anything else. It may help if you think about what sort of message your failure will send
to management.
The key is that you must be prepared to adapt and do whatever it takes to complete. Usually,
problems centre around a lack of time so you must become more effective in your use of it – go to
bed later, get up earlier, make use of the spare 5-10 minute blocks that we all have during a day.
Also, bear in mind that undertaking some course has lots of beneficial “hidden curriculum items” that
go with it. That is, doing a course does not just deliver “vocational” benefits, but also provides other
skills such as research skills, coping skills, time management, prioritising workloads, planning and
skills in meeting deadlines.
Management, too, know that when you have successfully completed a course, you not only have the
technical course skills, but also these other skills. And they factor those into their appreciation of
your talents and potential.
Reviewing personal progress and performance
Closely allied to accepting personal responsibility is the need to regularly review progress with the
appropriate personnel.
The intention here is to:
▪ Gain feedback
▪ Stay on track
▪ Receive encouragement
▪ Fine-tune skills already obtained
▪ Test the depth and levels of skills and knowledge
▪ Maintain motivation
▪ Access support
▪ Modify efforts that are not achieving the desired outcomes
The “appropriate personnel” will vary depending on the self-development being undertaken, but may
include:
▪ Internal and external teachers and lecturers
▪ Management and/or store-owners
▪ Your life coach
▪ Other team members and store colleagues
▪ Your workplace mentor, coach or assessor
▪ Head office personnel

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Each of these things will help you to become a good role model for staff members.
This aside; there are other actions that make you a pe4rfect role model to colleagues.
Role-modelling behaviour
The strongest influence on employee behaviour is their direct team leader, and because of this
influence the importance of modelling the correct work practices and behaviours expected at work, is
paramount in effective leadership.
The leader who can gain the respect and admiration of their co-workers is often likely to gain
commitment to projects with a high standard of outcomes on a consistent basis.
When influencing others, the role model does not expect team members to mirror every aspect of
themselves, authenticity also comes from individuality. For example, when the focus is client centric,
effective role modelling guides team members on how they personally could take time for the
customer in various ways. Customer friendly role models can be observed showing empathy to the
customer and taking personal responsibility to follow through with requests.
Some characteristics of positive role models may include:
▪ Professional experience and credibility
▪ Strong communication skills
▪ Pay attention to their acts
▪ Effective listening skills
▪ Ability to build rapport internally and externally
▪ Encourage teamwork and cooperation
▪ Commitment to growth and development of others
How to be a good role model:
▪ Self-reflect. Reflect on actions and the reactions that they produce. Leaders who understand
why they do something in a particular way, will be able to guide others in similar situations.
▪ Receive feedback. Self-awareness and an open mind to improve oneself is an important trait
in effective role modelling.
▪ Confidence in self and role. A favourable approach to tasks and problem solving will be
mirrored by others.
▪ Communicate. Good communication means listening as well as speaking. An effective role
model builds confidence in others. When people know what is expected of them they are
able to add value with their contributions.
▪ Show empathy. People need to know that they are being heard and understood, that the
challenges they face are supported and acknowledged by their manager.
▪ Have a clear vision. Setting clear expectations of short term and long term goals, models the
expectations of the business to all employees.
▪ Lead by example. Good leadership role models are honest and practice what they preach.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

LIAISE WITH STAKEHOLDERS
All members of an organisation need to know what is going on so the frontline manager needs to be
able to communicate to management. Communication must be two way. For effective
communication to take place you need to consider these factors:
Communication can be emotional, make sure that you use the correct tone and watch nonverbal
communications
Make sure you give the receivers time to respond, communication is a two way street
Be yourself, it allows trust to be built and others will be able to relate to you more easily.
Be an effective listener, use repetition and paraphrasing to make sure that the message has be heard
and communicated effetely.
Make sure that you approach everyone with an accepting attitude, celebrate diversity and
differences!
ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN OPEN
COMMUNICATION PROCESSES WITH ALL
STAKEHOLDERS
You should try to establish a work environment in which you can freely communicate with team
members and stakeholders regularly. When talking about stakeholder we could be referring to:
▪ Board members
▪ Business or government contacts
▪ Funding bodies
▪ Union/employee groups and representatives
▪ Work teams
When you solicit feedback from stakeholders, you can learn about issues and resolve problems
before things escalate. Some of your stakeholders may have good ideas that can improve workplace
efficiency, but you may never hear about these ideas if you don’t establish open communication with
your staff. You can use several different media to communicate with your stakeholders, but before
the dialogue can begin you must first establish some ground rules.

• Step 1 – Share some communication ground rules with your stakeholders. Explain that people
can’t use offensive language in the workplace or make incendiary comments that may be
interpreted as racist, sexist or discriminatory. Make sure your employees understand that
open communication doesn’t mean verbalising every thought that comes into your head.
Everyone must act and communicate in a professional manner
• Step 2 – Explain key concepts to your team. Managers often communicate via acronyms or
jargon that mean nothing to lower ranking employees. Give your employees a list of the
acronyms that you commonly use and explain what the letters actually mean, because you
can’t communicate effectively if your employees don’t understand the subject matter
• Step 3 – Schedule team meetings. Involve your entire team in weekly meetings, but make sure
you schedule the meetings at appropriate times because your employees may think you’re
not interested in communicating if you constantly reschedule or cancel meetings. Arrange the
BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016
agenda for the meeting so you have ample time to communicate your ideas and your
employees also have a chance to provide feedback
• Step 4 – Provide your employees with regular updates on important matters that may impact
the workplace. Your workers will feel more in tune with the company if they hear about
developments from you rather than having to wait to hear whispers on the grapevine. Openly
address issues that may concern your employees, such as cutbacks and budget reductions, to
let everyone know where they stand rather than springing unpleasant surprises on them
• Step 5 – Institute an open door policy. Literally leave your office door open if you can do so
without disrupting your work. Many people perceive closed doors as barriers that managers
put up to cut themselves off from their employees. You can encourage your employees to
come to your office with questions and concerns, but they’re more likely to do so if they see
an open door5

There are many different ways of communication with stakeholders, and your organisation will have
its preferred methods.
Much of our communication can be lost if it is not clear, following are some tips to help foster clear
communication:
▪ Know what is that you want to communicate, is it important, urgent, how does it need to be
communicated
▪ Who needs to get the information? Is it a group or is it just for individuals
▪ Make written communications clear: is it logic, clear, keep it simple, in context, what ids the
purpose, and who is the author
▪ Verbal communication can be just as challenging and the same rules apply as written.
The art of communication are the basic principles of being:
▪ Focussed
▪ Factual
▪ Frequent
Communicate information from line manager/ management to the team
Managers should always be aware of the importance communicating information to the team. With
open honest communication and two way communication you will create a culture of openness, trust
and confidence. Knowing the ways in which information can flow is important, communication can
flow vertically or laterally. Vertical can be further divided into downwards and upwards.
Downward communication is communication that flows from one level of an organisation to a lower
level. It can be used to assign goals, provide instructions, inform on policies and procedures, point
out problems and seek feedback.
Upward communication flows to a higher level in the organisation. It can be used to provide feedback
to senior employees. It keeps them informed on progress towards organisational goals. It can also
provide information on continuous improvement to management
Lateral communication takes place among members of the same work group, among members of
work groups at the same level. It can save time and facilitate communication.
5 http://smallbusiness.chron.com/establish-open-communication-work-25071.html

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

In communicating information to your team consider the following:
▪ Consider communication needs of individuals
▪ Describe behaviors rather than interpreting them
▪ focus on controllable behaviors not personality
▪ Be specific to be precisely understood
▪ Be non-judgmental – don’t be seen to be giving a personal attack
▪ Give feedback immediately so that it is fresh
▪ Express feelings directly
Line Managers/Managers have many communication requirements. Line manager /management may
refer to chief executive officer, direct superior or other management representatives. Predominantly
they are responsible to:
▪ Explain complex information clearly, putting it in context and in practical ‘on-the-job’ terms
▪ Communicate at different levels up and down the management structure
▪ Provide constructive feedback
▪ Lead change, not pass the buck to more senior management
▪ Accept accountability for the communication process
▪ Listening skills
▪ Coach employees
▪ ‘Sell’ ideas and changes, and acting as a catalyst
▪ Manage performance, identify and close performance gaps and develop capabilities — this
means being able both to understand the need for it and then see the process through
Therefore, there is a great deal of information that needs to be communicated from the Managers to
the team. This communication process is vitally important.
Communication methods can include:
▪ Team meetings
▪ Emails
▪ Notices
▪ Announcements
▪ Any other form of communication your organisation uses
You will need to ensure the communication is clear and concise and is passed on in a timely manner.
Staff members need information on time so they can perform their roles as expected by
Management so you will need to ensure the information is passed on in the correct amount of time.

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

COMMUNICATE UNRESOLVED ISSUES,
CONCERNS AND PROBLEMS RAISED BY THE
TEAM/TEAM MEMBERS TO LINE
MANAGER/MANAGEMENT AND ENSURE
FOLLOW-UP ACTION IS TAKEN
Communication in relation to issues and problems is vital if you are to provide your team with
effective leadership. This means there will be times when you need to communicate with line
managers and management to affect a solution for identified issues.
There are many skills you need to have to effectively communicate with anyone in your organisation.
These skills are called interpersonal skills – You use interpersonal skills to develop shared meaning
when you communicate with other people on a one-to-one or group basis. The skills you use will vary
according to the people’s needs and the context.
In the workplace there are several reasons we may need to communicate and can include:
▪ Making decisions
▪ Gathering information
▪ Discussion issues and problems
▪ Making presentations
▪ Supervising staff
Approaches to communicating with others
Effective communication is achieved when ideas and information are exchanged so that meaning is
shared. To do this, you need to use appropriate interpersonal skills. This means:
▪ Establishing positive working relationships
▪ Working out how people feel about working together
▪ Solving problems and resolving conflict
▪ Gathering all necessary information to perform a task
▪ Anticipating and meeting the needs of others
▪ Creating rules and common ways of behaving
In most situations, assertive behaviours are usually the most appropriate. However, we all use a
range of interpersonal behaviours. We need to practise so that we learn appropriate assertive
behaviour.
You will need to ensure you communicate all issues and unresolved problems to your supervisors
or line managers in order to solve the problems. Problems and issues left unresolved cause major
conflict in the workplace
Unresolved issues are not always a bad thing, it can mean that something is out of the team’s control,
but it can be the warning signs that something is wrong and conflict is on the horizon.
Difficulties that might need to be communicated with management can include:
▪ Lack of resources
▪ Tensions within the team

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

▪ Role ambiguity
▪ Missed milestones
▪ Goal uncertainty and external blockers
Issues raised need to be acknowledged by frontline managers and addressed in a timely manner and
communicated to the team.
EVALUATE AND TAKE NECESSARY CORRECTIVE
ACTION REGARDING UNRESOLVED ISSUES,
CONCERNS AND PROBLEMS RAISED BY
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS
If decisions are not made promptly and issues that are left unresolved may form the basis for conflict
within the team and the organisation. Unresolved issues need to be followed up and unresolved
issues need to be dealt with and negotiated in a spirit of cooperation and under the company’s code
of ethics or code of conduct.
The Manager acts as a link between management and the team.
Communication needs to be upwards and downwards, effective communication with management
needs to be in context, accurate, timely, and presented in a manner that is clearly and easily
understood.
You must address unresolved issues between team members and or management because it is the
role of the frontline manager to follow up and act.
All employees are required to meet certain standards and behave to these standards in the
workplace. Corrective action is another word for correcting behaviour that is unacceptable in the
workplace.
The goal of the corrective action is to guide the employee to behave in a manner that is acceptable in
the workplace, not to punish the employee.
Oral Warning
The supervisor should:
▪ Set a time and place to ensure privacy
▪ Make notes about what they want to say in advance
▪ Remember that the employee has a right to choose representation
▪ State clearly that they are issuing an oral warning
▪ Be specific in describing the unacceptable performance or behaviour
▪ Remind the employee of the acceptable standards or rules. If they are available in writing,
they should be provided to the employee
▪ State the consequences of failure to demonstrate immediate and sustained improvement:
Further disciplinary action may be the result
▪ Note the oral warning on their calendar6
6 http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-23-taking-disciplinary-action/

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

Written Warning
If the employee has been given an oral warning and the problem behaviour continues, a written
warning may be next in line. A written warning should:
▪ Advise the employee that the letter is a written warning
▪ Describe the performance problem in detail
▪ Outline previous steps are taken to acquaint the employee with the issue
▪ Why the behaviour is not acceptable?
▪ Take into account the response from the employee
▪ Explain the expectations regarding behaviour and/or performance
▪ Clarify that if the employee doesn’t demonstrate immediate and sustained improvement, the
consequence may be further disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal
▪ Advise the employee of their rights
▪ Be delivered the letter and a copy filed
There are further much more severe consequences for on-going behavioural issues, and these will be
described in detail in your policies and procedures. Suffice to say the basics of these include:
▪ Suspension without pay
▪ Reduction of pay within a class
▪ Demotion to lower classification
▪ Dismissal 7
No matter what the corrective action is, it is serious and must be considered in this manner. No
corrective action should be taken without consultation with supervisors and/or Managers.
7 http://www.hr.ucdavis.edu/supervisor/Er/Corrective-Action

BSBWOR502 Lead and manage team effectiveness
© TAFE Western
Version 12 July 2016

REFERENCES
WEBSITES
http://legalrepresentations.co.uk/Services/Consultations.aspx
http://supplychainimprovers.org/tag/w-edwards-deming/
http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-23-taking-disciplinary-action/
http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
http://www.depts.ttu.edu/operations/Planning-and-Training-Documents/EmployeeDevelopment/Recognition-Guide.pdf
http://www.disability.wa.gov.au/Global/Publications/For%20disability%20service%2…
OTHER
“Team Dynamics – how they affect performance.” n.d. Web. 09 Jun. 2016
<http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/team/dynamics/overview/>.
“Consensus Building | Beyond Intractability.” n.d. Web. 09 Jun. 2016
<http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/consensus-building>.
“Five Tips for Effective Employee Recognition.” n.d. Web. 09 Jun. 2016
<http://www.awardconcepts.net/artman/publish/printer_29.php>.
“www.waseantourism.com.” n.d. Web. 09 Jun. 2016
<http://www.waseantourism.com/ft/Approved%20Toolboxes%20&%20Competency%20stan
dards/Monitor%20workplace%20operations/TM_Manage_workplace_operations_refined.do>.
“How to Establish Open Communication at Work | Chron.com.” n.d. Web. 09 Jun. 2016
<http://smallbusiness.chron.com/establish-open-communication-work-25071.html>.
End of Learner Guide

postadmin